Role of Catholic Church

1000 - 1800

Always present, strong during middle ages but slowly developed to more secular ideas through Renaissance and Reformation.


Approx. 1100 - Approx. 1500

Articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.


Approx. 1200 - 1737

The Medicis were a wealthy family that essentially controlled Florence throughout the Renaissance. They were great patrons of the arts and their family produced four different popes.

Conciliar Theory

Approx. 1300 - Approx. 1500

Church where a council could regulate papal actions.


Approx. 1300 - Approx. 1600

Plato's ideas that human reason already existed, everything can be resolved through math.

Art Techniques (Chiaroscuro, sfumato, linear perspective)

1300 - 1600

Chiaroscuro- treatment of light/shade in painting. Sfumato- haziness of a painting, linear perspective- 3D effect of paintings.

Renaissance Art

1300 - 1600

Renaissance art was dominated by innovations in education as well as humanist subject matter/reflections.


1300 - 1500

Focus on life instead of spiritual afterlife.


1304 - 1374

Father of Humanism

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

Popes in Avignon, France instead of Rome because of conflicts in Italy. Creates a French influence on papacy.

Edward III

1312 - 1377

Makes England a military power, develops English government and legislature. Started 100 Years' War.

100 Years' War

1337 - 1453

Feudal disputes between France and England, war creates a feeling of nationalism in England and France.

Black Death/Bubonic Plague

1346 - 1400

Plague that decimated the European population.

City States/Merchants

Approx. 1350 - Approx. 1600

Throughout the Renaissanced, Italy was split up into multiple city states of Venice, Milan, Florence, Naples, the Papal States, Siena, Savoy, Genoa and off the coast the states of Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily. Merchants were the big spreaders of ideals during this time, spreading technology and educational theories throughout these states.


1400 - 1650

Exalting ancient Greco-Roman texts during the Renaissance, promoted the liberal arts.

Lorenzo Valla

1407 - 1457

Humanist who defended human pleasure, proved papal jurisdiction of western Europe unwarranted.

Ferdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1516

Join Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile, expelled Jews, supported Columbus in his voyage of new world.

Tudor Dynasty/ Henry VIII

1485 - 1603

Henry VIII broke England away from predominant Catholicism, forming the Church of England. The rest of the Tudor monarchs, ending with Elizabeth, were primarily Protestant and successful.

Charles VIII Invades Italy


Under endorsement from Pope Innocent VIII because of the leader of Naples' refusal to pay bills to papacy, Charles invades Italy.

Act of Supremacy


Henry VIII head of Church of England

Specific Dates/Works

Durer, Raphael, Giotto, Van Eyck

1266 - 1528

Durer and Raphael were both painters during the high renaissance, with Giotto and Van Eyck establishing the beginning of renaissance art.

Plato's Allegory of the Cave

Approx. 1300 - Approx. 1600

Showed the importance of education on society and the effects of a lack thereof, appeared during renaissance- influenced humanism. Dates are range of influence.

Unam Sanctum


Pope Boniface VIII asserts rights against Phillip the Fair

Boccaccio writes The Decameron


Details citizens' reactions to the Black Plague, written in the vernacular. One of the first secular works.



French peasant revolt because of high taxes.

Christine de Pisan

1364 - 1430

Although Italian of birth, de Pisan served as a court writer for the French Royal Court during the reign of Charles VI. Was an early advocate for women's rights with "The Book of The City of Ladies."

John Wycliffe/Lollards


Translated bible to vernacular English, set up basis for Protestant Reformation.

Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Portuguese prince who began exploration in Europe.

John Huss


Led Czech reform movement but was burned at the stake for heresy. Precursor to Protestant Reformation.

Joan of Arc


Joan of Arc, a French peasant, led a victory over the English during the 100 Years' War then was burned at the stake for heresy by English church officials.

Pope Alexander VI/Borgia

1431 - 1503

Corrupt pope under influence of Borgia family, promoted family members to church office.

Printing Press


Invented by Johannes Gutenberg, allowed for more information/ideas to spread across Europe during Renaissance.


1452 - 1498

Florentine Dominican Friar who preached against corruption and sin, attempted to overthow Medicis. Excommunicated.

Da Vinci

1452 - 1519

First real renaissance man with achievements in math, engineering, art and writing.

Treaty of Lodi


Peace agreement/non-agression pact among Milan, Naples and Florence.

Vasco de Gama

1460 - 1524

Portuguese explorer, first to reach India by sea.


1466 - 1536

Dutch Renaissance humanist, wrote In Praise of folly- an attack on the more spiritual of Europe- and also wrote Julius Excluded from Heaven allegedly.


1475 - 1564

Artist during high renaissance, developed western art, sculpted "David" and painted the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel.


1476 - 1541

Spanish Conquistador Pizarro exterminated the Incas and killed their leader, Atahualpa, and took over Incan lands for Spain.


1478 - 1529

Wrote a book called The Courtier which described proper manners for gentlemen and ladies.

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Humanist opposed to Protestant Reformation, wrote Utopia, refused to acknowledge Henry VIII's act of supremacy, so beheaded.


1480 - 1521

Portuguese explorer, first to circumnavigate the world.

Las Casas/Black Legend

1484 - 1566

Bartolme Las Casas, a dominican friar, wrote of the Black Legend- a description of the cruel ways Spanish treated natives.


1485 - 1547

Hernan Cortes brought down the Aztec empire and murdered the Aztec king Moctezuma

de Mirandola's Oration on the Dignity of Man


Mirandola, an Italian and Renaissance Philosopher, wrote what is said to be the manifesto of the Renaisance- the Oration on the Dignity of Man, an exalting of humankind.

Christopher Columbus


Italian explorer who discovered Americas for Spain.

League of Venice

1495 - 1498

Pope Alexander VI, Ferdinand of Aragon- who was also King of Sicily- Emperor Maximilian I; Ludovico in Milan; and the Republic of Venice come together to combat invading French

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

(Dates are of his Papacy)
Warrior pope- personally led troops into battle twice. Responsible for rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica and painting of Sistine Chapel ceilings. Allowed Henry VIII to marry Catherine of Aragon.

Hacienda/Encomiende Systems


Systems of wealth created to keep order of class divisions in Spanish America.

Machiavelli and The Prince


Innovative, vernacular-written book that teaches leaders to put state matters above all else.