Always present, strong during middle ages but slowly developed to more secular ideas through Renaissance and Reformation.
Articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
The Medicis were a wealthy family that essentially controlled Florence throughout the Renaissance. They were great patrons of the arts and their family produced four different popes.
Church where a council could regulate papal actions.
Plato's ideas that human reason already existed, everything can be resolved through math.
Chiaroscuro- treatment of light/shade in painting. Sfumato- haziness of a painting, linear perspective- 3D effect of paintings.
Renaissance art was dominated by innovations in education as well as humanist subject matter/reflections.
Focus on life instead of spiritual afterlife.
Father of Humanism
Popes in Avignon, France instead of Rome because of conflicts in Italy. Creates a French influence on papacy.
Makes England a military power, develops English government and legislature. Started 100 Years' War.
Feudal disputes between France and England, war creates a feeling of nationalism in England and France.
Plague that decimated the European population.
Throughout the Renaissanced, Italy was split up into multiple city states of Venice, Milan, Florence, Naples, the Papal States, Siena, Savoy, Genoa and off the coast the states of Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily. Merchants were the big spreaders of ideals during this time, spreading technology and educational theories throughout these states.
Exalting ancient Greco-Roman texts during the Renaissance, promoted the liberal arts.
Humanist who defended human pleasure, proved papal jurisdiction of western Europe unwarranted.
Join Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile, expelled Jews, supported Columbus in his voyage of new world.
Henry VIII broke England away from predominant Catholicism, forming the Church of England. The rest of the Tudor monarchs, ending with Elizabeth, were primarily Protestant and successful.
Under endorsement from Pope Innocent VIII because of the leader of Naples' refusal to pay bills to papacy, Charles invades Italy.
Henry VIII head of Church of England
Durer and Raphael were both painters during the high renaissance, with Giotto and Van Eyck establishing the beginning of renaissance art.
Showed the importance of education on society and the effects of a lack thereof, appeared during renaissance- influenced humanism. Dates are range of influence.
Pope Boniface VIII asserts rights against Phillip the Fair
Details citizens' reactions to the Black Plague, written in the vernacular. One of the first secular works.
French peasant revolt because of high taxes.
Although Italian of birth, de Pisan served as a court writer for the French Royal Court during the reign of Charles VI. Was an early advocate for women's rights with "The Book of The City of Ladies."
Translated bible to vernacular English, set up basis for Protestant Reformation.
Portuguese prince who began exploration in Europe.
Led Czech reform movement but was burned at the stake for heresy. Precursor to Protestant Reformation.
Joan of Arc, a French peasant, led a victory over the English during the 100 Years' War then was burned at the stake for heresy by English church officials.
Corrupt pope under influence of Borgia family, promoted family members to church office.
Invented by Johannes Gutenberg, allowed for more information/ideas to spread across Europe during Renaissance.
Florentine Dominican Friar who preached against corruption and sin, attempted to overthow Medicis. Excommunicated.
First real renaissance man with achievements in math, engineering, art and writing.
Peace agreement/non-agression pact among Milan, Naples and Florence.
Portuguese explorer, first to reach India by sea.
Dutch Renaissance humanist, wrote In Praise of folly- an attack on the more spiritual of Europe- and also wrote Julius Excluded from Heaven allegedly.
Artist during high renaissance, developed western art, sculpted "David" and painted the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel.
Spanish Conquistador Pizarro exterminated the Incas and killed their leader, Atahualpa, and took over Incan lands for Spain.
Wrote a book called The Courtier which described proper manners for gentlemen and ladies.
Humanist opposed to Protestant Reformation, wrote Utopia, refused to acknowledge Henry VIII's act of supremacy, so beheaded.
Portuguese explorer, first to circumnavigate the world.
Bartolme Las Casas, a dominican friar, wrote of the Black Legend- a description of the cruel ways Spanish treated natives.
Hernan Cortes brought down the Aztec empire and murdered the Aztec king Moctezuma
Mirandola, an Italian and Renaissance Philosopher, wrote what is said to be the manifesto of the Renaisance- the Oration on the Dignity of Man, an exalting of humankind.
Italian explorer who discovered Americas for Spain.
Pope Alexander VI, Ferdinand of Aragon- who was also King of Sicily- Emperor Maximilian I; Ludovico in Milan; and the Republic of Venice come together to combat invading French
(Dates are of his Papacy)
Warrior pope- personally led troops into battle twice. Responsible for rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica and painting of Sistine Chapel ceilings. Allowed Henry VIII to marry Catherine of Aragon.
Systems of wealth created to keep order of class divisions in Spanish America.
Innovative, vernacular-written book that teaches leaders to put state matters above all else.