Land Masses


35000 BC - 11000 BC

Land bridge joining Alaska and Siberia
Cold but not glaciated because of light snowfall
Grassland environment was ideal for animal like giant short-faced bear, mammoth, scimitar (sabre-tooth) cat, and steppe bison
A large pocket between Asian and North American glaciers

Glacial Refugia

17000 BC - 14500 BC
  • Areas of the coast that were never glaciated or deglaciated quickly
    • Refugia may have provided a series of islands, rich in resources, which allowed people to survive Animal fossils on various islands Now mostly underwater Potentially habital to humans

Ice free corridor

12500 BC - 11500 BC

Opened in 12500
Habitable in 11500



60000 BC - 53000 BC

Earliest evidence for human occupation in Australia

Pedra Furada, Brazil

56000 BC - 14300 BC
  • Thousands of flaked stone tools
    • Bottom of exfoliating cliff face
    • Skeptics argue flakes are "ecofacts" not artifacts Not widely accepted

Jonmium Cave

55000 BC - 50000 BC

Thought to be `~116k BP

Megafaunal extinction

51000 BC - 40000 BC

Australia, shortly after people arrived
23 to 24 genera of Australian land animals with body weights over 48 kg went extinct
End of plesitocene

New Guinea

50000 BC

First settlement of New Guinea

Lake Mungo

50000 BC - 46000 BC

Now a dry lake bed
Date is based on stone tools
Earliest skeletons (42k) buried here
Mungo Man: First evidence of burial with red ochre
Mungo Lady: Lady: First cremation

Nawarla Gabarnmang

45000 BC - 28000 BC

Oldest cave art
hand prints, animals, people, mythical beings, geometric designs, objects
X-ray art

Solutrean Hypothesis

21000 BC - 17000 BC

France and Spain

Boats in Japan/Korea

20000 BC

Solomon Islands

20000 BC

First occupation

Monte Verde, Chile

14700 BC - 12000 BC
  • Lots of undisputed stone tools
    • Organic tools such as wooden pegs and rope (in bogs that preserve materials)
    • 16k Km from the opening of the ice free corridor Best contender against Clovis people

Paisley Caves, Oregon

14500 BC - 13250 BC

Western stemmed tradition similar to Clovis peoples
Contemporary to clovis

Haida Gwaii, BC

14000 BC - 11500

Glacial refugia with bear remains and discovered artifacts
Supports coastal hypothesis

Central Alaska

14000 BC

Clovis evidence but no fluted points

Clovis peoples

13500 BC - 12900 BC

Defined primarily on the basis of distinctive projectile points

Wally's Beach, Alberta

13300 BC

Kill and butchering site - hunting of horse (7) and camel (1)
29 nondiagnostic artifacts
Pre/ early Clovis

Wally's beach site, Alberta

13300 BC - 12900 BC

Fluted points of Clovis

Charlie Lake Cave, BC

12500 BC

Fluted points of Clovis

Meadowcroft, Pensylvania

12500 BC - 12000 BC

Over 2000 stone flakes and tools, 150 fire pits and 1 million animal remains
Clovis site but some artifacts appear pre-clovis

Megafaunal extinction

11000 BC

34 genera of North and South America megafauna went extinct including mastodons, mammoths, horses, camels
After people were widespread


1500 BC - 1000 BC

Occupation - including Hawaii

New Zealand

1000 BC - 700 BC

Rest of melanasia


Lapita culture: based on special pottery

Debra L. Friedkin sites, Texas


A well stratified site with clear evidence of occupation before (below) Clovis
15.5k tools- hunting, butchering, hide, and wood working

New Britain


First settlement of New Britain

Food production

Domestication of Dog

35000 BC - 18000 BC

Beginning of food production

15000 BC - 10000 BC

Bottle Gourds Domesticated


Asia, mesamerica
Used mainly as strage