Renaissance Timeline

Events

Bubonic Plague [1347 - 1351 CE]

1347 - 1351

wiped out around 1/3 of Europe's population, less competition for labor positions

Printing Press

1440

created by Johannes Gutenburg, led to quicker and more efficient production of literature

Treaty of Lodi

1454 - 1455

Milan & Naples v.s. Venice, attempt at peace among Italian city states

French Invasion of Italy

1494 - 1498

Charles VIII of France marches through Italy at the invitation of Ludovico il Moro (Venice) to take back French holdings in Naples

League of Venice

1495

sponsored by the papacy, an alliance of Italian city states to go up against the French invasion, (Venice, the papacy, the Holy Roman Empire, and Aragon)

Act of Supremacy

1534 - 1558

required any person taking public or religious office to swear oath to the crown as the leader of the Church of England

People

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

father of humanism, Latin translation of Greco-Roman texts, emphasis on literature

Giovanni Boccaccio

1348

wrote Decameron, series of songs and poems

John Wycliffe and the Lollards

Approx. 1382

early break away from RCC, wanted the Bible to be in vernacular and accessible to all who could read, reject clerical wealth believed in vow of poverty, later burned at the stake as a heretic

Medici family in Florence

1397 - 1495

establishes banking of Papal Court in Florence, ruling family of city, patron of the arts, eventually found way in to Papacy, spread Catholic influence through marrying out children

Christine de Pizan

1405

The Book of City of Ladies, early feminist theories of noble women, equality for education and freedom for pursuit of knowledge

Henry the Navigator

Approx. 1430 - Approx. 1450

started explorations down the West African coast, eventually lead to the Cape of Good Hope, start African slave trade in to Portugal, info of coast led to later explorers finding route to India

Lorenzo Valla

Approx. 1439

exposed the Donation of Constantine as a hoax because the vernacular style didn't match with the time period it was supposedly written in

Girolamo Savonarola

1452 - 1498

Dominican priest, leader of Florence, exiled former leader (Piero de' Medici) for appeasing France with land/territorial posessions, blamed the invasion of Florence's immorality, VERY religious - destroyed secular art/literature/culture, later executed

Ferdinand and Isabella

1457 - 1504

Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile ruled most of present day Spain, lead Catholic Counter-Reformation, Spanish Inquisition, funded Columbus' travels

Tudor Dynasty

1485 - 1603

followed the War of the Roses, combined House of Langcaster and House of York rose symbol, Henry VII - Elizabeth I

Pico de Mirandola

1486

wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man, aka Manifesto of the Renaissance, centered around human perspective and capacity for achievement

Pope Alexander VI

1492 - 1503

promoted his only family's careers, corrupt pope, annulled France's Louis XII's marriage to marry Charles VIII's widow and keep Brittany, allowed France to invade Milan, took Ludovico il Moro as prisoner

Christopher Columbus

1492

sailed from Spain to what he thought to be a passageway to India, instead landed in Central/South America

Vasco de Gama

1497

traveled to the Cape of Good Hope

Erasmus

1500

wanted unity of humanist ideals with civic virtue and Catholicism's love/piety, wrote speeches (Colloquies) and collected proverbs/idioms (Adages)

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

"Warrior Pope", increased military power and diplomacy, pushed France out of Italy, part of Holy League (aka revival of League of Venice)

Henry VIII of England

1509 - 1547

excommunicated from Catholic church by asking for divorce from childless wife, Catherine of Aragon, created the Anglican church (Church of England) putting himself in charge of church, no separation of church and state, started consolidating power for rulers following him, 5 wives, 2 daughters, 1 son

Bartolome de Las Casas

1514

a Dominican priest, wrote the Black Legend against the actions/atrocities of the Spanish against the indigenous people

Thomas More

1516

wrote Utopia, described his version of an ideal society, more rights for women, no private property, etc. demonstrates the shift in Renaissance ideas to morality, politics, religion, and society

Ferdinand Magellan

1519 - 1521

his crew was the first to circumnaviagte the globe, he was killed in the Philippines, opened Spanish travel around South America and in to Asia

Hernan Cortez

1519

lands in Mexico and meets with Moctezuma (El Primer y La Segunda Carta de Relacion)

Baldassare Castiglione

1528

wrote The Book of the Courtier aka a handbook on how men should act/dress/speak/etc.,

Niccolo Machiavelli

1532

The Prince is a guide for autocratic regimes and power, often seen as blunt, Machiavelli outlines how ruling should be done for the betterment of the state even if it means to disregard the feelings/suggestions of the people

Francisco Pizarro

1532

landed and captured Incas ruler Atahualpa, beginning of Inca revolt until 1570's

Ideas/Trends

Secularism

Approx. 1300 - Approx. 1500

doctrines/beliefs rejecting religion, wanting separation of church and state

Platonism

Approx. 1400 - Approx. 1450

revival of Plato's doctrines and ideas

Humanism

Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1530

coined by Cicero, referring back to Greek/Roman/Biblical classics, highlight language/literature of the humans, revival of methods of thinking

Hacienda System

1520

established with the arrival of the first Spaniards in the New World, a large estate run by an owner and a large group of indigenous, indentured people

Encomienda System

1520

a system of labor where a holder (aka Spaniard) is give native people to "protect, teach, and give employment to", keep haciendas running