Freeing the Holy Lands. 1st Crusade led by Count Raymond IV of Toulouse and proclaimed by many wandering preachers, notably Peter the Hermit
Crusaders from Europe conquered Jerusalem, slaughtering Muslims, Jews and eastern Orthodox Christians alike.
The Second of the Crusades led by Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and by King Louis VII of France. Failure.
The Third of the Crusades led by Richard the Lionheart of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. Richard I made a truce with Saladin. Failure.
The Fourth Crusade led by Fulk of Neuil French/Flemish advanced on Constantinople
The Children's Crusade led by a French peasant boy, Stephen of Cloyes
The Fifth of the Crusades led by King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria, John of Brienne. Failure.
The Sixth of the Crusades led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Failure.
The Seventh of the Crusades led by Louis IX of France
Pope Innocent IV sanctioned the use of torture to extract truth from suspects brought before the Inquis
The Eighth of the Crusades led by Louis IX of France
The Ninth of the Crusades led by Prince Edward (later Edward I of England)