Crusades

Events

The Emperor

1095

The Emperor in Constantinople called for help against growing strength. Pope Urban II in Rome called Christians in Europe to join a crusade to liberate Jerusalem.

The First

1096 - 1099

The People's Crusade - Freeing the Holy Lands. 1st Crusade led by Count Raymond IV of Toulouse and proclaimed by many wandering preachers, notably Peter the Hermit

The March

1096

Crusaders marched in several armies towards the Holy Land. In cities across Europe, slaughtering defenceless Jews. The first armies arrived in Constantinople and crossed the Bosphorus to attack.

The Conquering

1099

Crusaders from Europe conquered Jerusalem, slaughtering Muslims, Jews and eastern Christians.

Crusader States

1101 - 1144

Crusader states were established in the Holy Land.

The Second

1146 - 1148

Second Crusade – a failure. The Second of the Crusades led by Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and by King Louis VII of France

Reconquering

1187

Muslims led reconquered Jerusalem.

The Third

1189 - 1192

Third Crusade – a failure. The Third of the Crusades led by Richard the Lionheart of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. Richard I made a truce with Saladin

The Fourth

1200 - 1204

Fourth Crusade – Latin Christians from Europe conquered the eastern Orthodox, killing “fellow Christians” and taking the treasures to palaces in Europe. The Fourth Crusade led by Fulk of Neuil French/Flemish advanced on Constantinople

Children's Crusade

1212

The Children's Crusade led by a French peasant boy, Stephen of Cloyes.

The Fifth

1219 - 1221

Fifth Crusade to “save” the Holy Land – a failure. The Fifth of the Crusades led by King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria, John of Brienne

The Sixth

1229

Sixth Crusade – a failure. The Sixth of the Crusades led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II

Start of Inquisition

1231

The church’s attempt to enforce doctrinal orthodoxy throughout Christendom.

The Seventh

1248

Seventh Crusade – a failure. The Seventh of the Crusades led by Louis IX of France

Pain and Suffering

1252

The use of torture to extract truth from suspects brought before the Inquisitors.

The Eighth

1270

The Eighth of the Crusades led by Louis IX of France.