The Emperor in Constantinople called for help against growing strength. Pope Urban II in Rome called Christians in Europe to join a crusade to liberate Jerusalem.
The People's Crusade - Freeing the Holy Lands. 1st Crusade led by Count Raymond IV of Toulouse and proclaimed by many wandering preachers, notably Peter the Hermit
Crusaders marched in several armies towards the Holy Land. In cities across Europe, slaughtering defenceless Jews. The first armies arrived in Constantinople and crossed the Bosphorus to attack.
Crusaders from Europe conquered Jerusalem, slaughtering Muslims, Jews and eastern Christians.
Crusader states were established in the Holy Land.
Second Crusade – a failure. The Second of the Crusades led by Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and by King Louis VII of France
Muslims led reconquered Jerusalem.
Third Crusade – a failure. The Third of the Crusades led by Richard the Lionheart of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. Richard I made a truce with Saladin
Fourth Crusade – Latin Christians from Europe conquered the eastern Orthodox, killing “fellow Christians” and taking the treasures to palaces in Europe. The Fourth Crusade led by Fulk of Neuil French/Flemish advanced on Constantinople
The Children's Crusade led by a French peasant boy, Stephen of Cloyes.
Fifth Crusade to “save” the Holy Land – a failure. The Fifth of the Crusades led by King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria, John of Brienne
Sixth Crusade – a failure. The Sixth of the Crusades led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II
The church’s attempt to enforce doctrinal orthodoxy throughout Christendom.
Seventh Crusade – a failure. The Seventh of the Crusades led by Louis IX of France
The use of torture to extract truth from suspects brought before the Inquisitors.
The Eighth of the Crusades led by Louis IX of France.