Early Civilizations



3300 B.C.

The ancient Egyptian writing system that used picture symbols.

Ancient Egypt

2700 B.C.E - 1100 B.C.E

The Old Kingdom

2700 BC - 2200 BC


2551 B.C.E - 2528 B.C.E

His greatest achievement was to build the Great Pyramid.

Kingdom of Kush

2300 B.C. - 350 A.D.

The Middle Kingdom

2050 B.C. - 1750 B.C.

Was a period of stable government between periods of disorder.

The New Kingdom

1550 B.C. - 1050 B.C.

Was the peak of Egyptian trade and military power, but t's greatness did not last.


1473 B.C.E - 1456 B.C.E

One of her greatest achievements was that she was the first female pharaoh.

Kush's Conquer of Egypt

751 B.C.

A Kushite king, Kashta, took advantage of Egypt's weakness.

Ghana Empire

830 - 1235

The word Ghana means "Warrior King"

Ghana's Decline

1060 - 1200

A country in West Africa between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo

Mali Empire

1230 - 1600

Mansa Musa's Rule

1312 - 1337

Ruler of Mali, he was Mali's greatest and most famous ruler. Mansa Musa was a devoted Muslim who made a pilgrimage to Mecca that helped spread Mali's fame.

Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage to Mecca


Songhai Epire

1375 - 1591

Songhai participated in the same trade that had made Ghana and Mali so rich.

Fall of Mali


Nomads, from the Sahara, seized Timbuktu. By 1500 nearly all of the lands the empire had once ruled were lost. Only a small area of Mali remained.

Fall of Songhai


The swords, spears, and bows used by Songhai's warriors were no match for the Moroccans' guns and cannons.

Rosetta Stone


A huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing.