Early Civilization


Kingdom of Kush

3500 Bc

Since they were along the Nile river they had very fertile land and could grow crops easy. Because the Nile's flood they could grow food in both the winter and summer. This allowed them to thrive. The people of Kush were also know as Nubia. In 2000 BC one leader had made himself king of all the villages. They made cataracts to protect themselves from invasion.


3300 BC

Hieroglyphic was Egyptian writing system and one of the first writing systems. There are more than 600 symbols but mostly containing pictures of objects. Hieroglyphic could be written horizontally or vertically .

Old Kingdom

2700 BCE - 2200 BCE

They had a strong central government. They had very nice pyramids for tombs of the Pharaohs . Was called the age of the Pyramid.


2551 BCE - 2528 BCE

He made the Great Pyramid.

Middle Kingdom

2000 BCE - 1800 BCE

The middle kingdom lasted from 2000 to 1800 BCE. They enjoyed achievements such as literature, architecture, and art. This period was called Period of Reunification


1971 BCE - 1926 BCE

Karnak had great works of literature and had many temples/monuments.

New Kingdom

1600 BCE - 1100 BCE

The new kingdom lasted from 1600 to 1100 BCE. They reached new height due to the time of peace and stability. This time period was known as Egypt’s Golden Age. Pharaohs really increased trade and also had huge monuments built.

First Historical Record of Kush

700 Bc

An army from Kush swept into Egypt and conquered it. They were able to conquer Egypt because all the Pharaohs were weak so they took advantage.

Kush Conquers Egypt

700 Bc

All the pharaohs were weak and it left Egypt open for attack. So Kashta took advantage and took them out. First he conquers the Upper Egypt. Then he established relations with the Lower Egypt . Kashta had died giving the throne to his son Piankhi and he conquered the rest of Egypt

Ghana Empire


Ghana took control of West African trade routes. Ghana forced traders to pay taxes like the people of Ghana. The king of Ghana used his great wealth to create a powerful army. The king also band gold nuggets in Ghana to make sure he was not equal to his opponents.


800 - 1591

Trade existed through the empire because the standing army situation. they had sort of like a latter economy. Had good Government.


830 - 1235

The Empire became rich from the trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt. They encouraged territorial growth to gain control over the lucrative trade routes.

Ghana's Decline


A Muslim group called Almoravids attacked Ghana. They fought for 14 years and Ghana kept them by the bay. But the day came and they destroyed a city. They cut off many routes. They lost one of there main source rich soil. The Almoravids brought animals in that ate all the grass leaving the rich soil expose to the hot heat.

Mali Kingdom

1230 - 1600

They flourished because of trade above all else. Mali steady tax revenue and stable government beginning in the last quarter of the 13th century, the Mali Empire was able to project its power throughout its own extensive domain and beyond.

Rosetta Stone


The Rosetta Stone is a huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics. This slab contained of three different language Hindu, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian. Scholars that knew Greek were able to read the hieroglyphics.