Early Civilizations



3300 BC

Egyptian writing system, symbols meant to teach

Old Kingdom

2700 BCE - 2200 BCE

Age of the Pyramids
Pharaohs made steady government
Huge Pyramids for tombs for the dead


2551 BCE - 2528 BCE

controlled a large network of government officials
very strict on the villages food supply
his pyramid contained 200 million blocks

Kingdom of Kush

2000 BC

Kush was the leader of his village then he took over his village and named it after him.

Middle Kingdom

2000 BCE - 1800 BCE

Period of Reunification
Years of Chaos
Many achievements for literature and art


1971 BCE - 1926 BCE

He had many temples, shrines, and religious monuments
The White Chapel, and the White Stone

New Kingdom

1600 BCE - 1100 BCE

Egypt's Golden Age
Lots of peace and stability
Pharaohs increased trade
Made great monuments

Rameses II

1290 BCE - 1224 BCE

He ruled for over 60 years
First Pharaoh to make a peace treaty

Kush Conquers Egypt

850 BC

First Historical Records of Kush

700 BC

850 BC Kush regained strength. Around 751 BC he had conquered upper Egypt.


830 - 1235

Located in modern day southern eastern Mauritania
Grew rich in gold and salt
Major part of the city was called El-Ghaba

Ghana's Decline


They collapsed due to invasion and overgrazing.


1230 - 1600

Located in West Africa of the Mandinka
By the beginning of the 14th century, Mali was the source of almost half of the Old World's gold from mines
The Mali empire was able to protect it power throughout its own extensive domain and beyond

Mansa Musa's Rule

1312 - 1337

He added Timbuktu to their trade route
Religion was very important to him.

Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage to Mecca


He introduced his empire to the Islamic world.

Fall of Mali

1431 - 1500

After Mansa Musa died his son took over the empire and was a very weak ruler. Raiders came and he couldn't stop them. Mali never recovered.


1464 - 1591

Located in Western Africa
they were independent in the gold fields
upper classes converted to Islam and lower classes continued to follow traditional religions

Fall of Songhai


Morocco wanted to gain control over Songhai. They sent armies. The warriors of Songhai didn't stand a chance.

Rosetta Stone


a huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics