Early Civilization


Old Kingdom

2700 BCE - 2200 BCE

The Old Kingdom was known for their pyramids built as tombs for themselves. They also created a strong goverment

Pharaoh Khufu

2551 BCE - 2528 BCE

During this time period Khufu ruled. Khufu was known for building the famous pyramid. This was during the Old Kingdom. The pyramid was made of 2 million bricks and it took 20 years

Middle Kingdom

2000 BCE - 1800 BCE

Also called "Period of Reunification". they were known for the Egyptians were enjoying their achievements in literature, art, and architecture

Pharaoh Szhusret

1971 BCE - 1926 BCE

Szhusret best achievement was building the white chapel. The chapel was built of Alabaster. It had art on the pillars like animals and gods. ect.

New Kingdom

1600 BCE - 1100 BCE

Known as Egypt's Golden Age because during this time of peace and stability ancient Egypt's power reached its height. Pharaohs made trade increase and they had really big monuments built.

Pharaoh Harshesut

1473 BCE - 1458 BCE

Hatshepsut was Egypt's first female ruler. She demanded the same respect as man pharaohs. One of her greatest achievements was when the Dary al Bahri was built. It was built into a cliff above the Nile River.

Trade in Ancient West Africa

300 CE

300 CE, camel caravans carried salt from mines in the Sahara Desert to trading centers along the Niger River in present-day Mali. Their mission was to exchange the salt for the gold that was mined in forests near the headwaters of the Niger. West Africa's first kingdom, Ghana, became wealthy and powerful because it controlled the trade routes and commercial activities in its region.


830 - 1235

The empire's capital is believed to have been at Koumbi Saleh on the rim of the Sahara desert. According to the description of the town left in 1067, the capital was actually two cities six miles apart but "between these two towns are continuous habitations", so that they might be said to have merged into one.

The major part of the city was called El-Ghaba and was the residence of the king. It was protected by a stone wall and functioned as the royal and spiritual capital of the Empire. It contained a sacred grove of trees used for Soninke religious rites in which priests lived. It also contained the king's palace, the grandest structure in the city.


1230 - 1600

The Mali Empire flourished because of trade above all else. It contained three immense gold mines within its borders unlike the Ghana Empire, which was only a transit point for gold. The empire taxed every ounce of gold or salt that entered its borders. By the beginning of the 14th century, Mali was the source of almost half the Old World’s gold exported from mines in Bambuk, Boure and Galam. There was no standard currency throughout the realm, but several forms were prominent by region.


1500 - 1600

The Songhai state has existed in one form or another for over a thousand years if one traces its rulers from the first settlement in Gao to its semi-vassal status under the Mali Empire through its continuation in Niger as the Dendi Kingdom. Economic trade existed throughout the Empire, due to the standing army stationed in the provinces. Central to the regional economy were independent gold fields. The merchants would form partnerships, and the state would protect these merchants and the port cities on the Niger. It was a very strong trading kingdom, known for its production of practical crafts as well as religious artifacts.