The Crusades

Events

Pope Steven II tells Carolingian Ruler St. Peter will remit sins of those who fight for the church

Approx. 753

Saracan Fleets land at Ostia, raided inland sacking Rome

Approx. 846

Pope Leo IV issued call to Franks that whoever dies in the fight would go to Heaven

852

Ten German Bishops were killed in battle

Approx. 886 - Approx. 908

Christian "Peace of God Movement Began

Approx. 989

Truce of God prohibits warfare on Sundays and Holy days passed

Approx. 1027

Merchants added to Peace of God treaty

Approx. 1033

Pope Gregory VIII Initiates a new conception of the church and the role of the papacy within it.

Approx. 1073

Council of Clermont

Approx. 1095

Peoples Crusade

1096

Princes Crusade

1096 - 1099

Siege of Antioch

Approx. 1097 - Approx. 1098

Crusaders capture Jerusalem

Approx. 1099

Song of Roland

1100

The Crusade of the Faint hearted

1101 - 1102

Catalan crusade to recover Balearic Islands

1114

First Crusading Military Orders

1129

Knights Hospitaller & Knights Templar

Nur al DIn unites Moslem Syria under his rule

1146 - 1174

Reintroduces idea of Jihad

Second Crusade

1147

Called by Pope Eugene II, preached b y St. Bernard of Clairvaux, led by King Louis VII of France and King Conrad of Germany to recover the city of Edessa

Wendish Crusade: first of the Northern Crusades

1147

Pope Eugene extends crusading priveliges to Germans campaigning against the pagan Wendish Slavs

Crusade: Capture of Lisbon

1147

They took the city and expelled the Moors from it.

Almohads establish Seville as its capital

1170

The entire army of the kingdom of Jerusalem is wiped out by Saladin

1187

First income tax created to liberate the Holy City- Saladin Tithe

1188

Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem

1189

Massacre of the Jews of York

1190

Richard the Lionheart

1191 - 1192

led third crusade, made 3 year peace treaty with Saladin for Christian rights to Jerusalem do to brother Prince John trying to seize English throne

Teutonic Order

1193

Pope Celestine III calls for crusade against pagans of the Baltic

Livonian Crusade

1198 - 1212

Present day Latvia

First Political Crusade- against Markward of Anweiler

1199

Fourth Crusade

1203

To liberate Jerusalem

Albigensian Crusade

1209 - 1229

Childrens Crusade

1212

Battle of Muret

1213

Fifth Crusade

1218

Crusader Frederick II claimed kingdom of Jerusalem by marrying daughter of nominal ruler

1225

Emperor Frederick II excommunicated

1227

Crusade of Emperor Frederick II

1228 - 1229

Ignoring excommunication, Emperor Frederick lead crusade to Palestine & retakes Jerusalem through negotiations instead of using force

Crusades to the East of Thibault, count of Champagne and Richard, earl of Cornwell

1239 - 1241

One of most successful

Jerusalem lost to Muslims again

1244

Frederick deposed and absolves his subjects

1245

Seventh Crusade

1248 - 1254

King Louis IX of France, led most funded crusade took Egyptian port city of Damietta w/o opposition gets himself and entire army captured in hopes of taking Cairo.

King Louis IX 2nd Crusade

1269 - 1270

Lord Edward leads a crusade to the east

1271

Crusade against Peter of Aragon

1284

in response to King Peters support of the Sicilian rebels

The fall of Acre

1291

The Fall of Acre (to Muslim Mamluks) marks the end of the Crusader states.

Hospitallers take control of the island of Rhodes

1306

Suppression of the knights Templar

1307 - 1312

King Phillip IV ordered the arrest of all of the Knights Templar in France. Under torture the Templars confessed. The last Grand Master of the order Jacques de Molay & Geoffrey de Charny , preceptor of Normandy, faced with life imprisonment recanted their confessions and were burnt at the stake.

Crusade in Hungary

1314

Crusade in Italy

1321

Crusade in Poland

1325

Crusade against King Louis IV of Germany

1328

Crusade against heretics in Bohemia

1340

Crusade against King Magnus of Sweden

1348