Knights Hospitaller & Knights Templar
Reintroduces idea of Jihad
Called by Pope Eugene II, preached b y St. Bernard of Clairvaux, led by King Louis VII of France and King Conrad of Germany to recover the city of Edessa
Pope Eugene extends crusading priveliges to Germans campaigning against the pagan Wendish Slavs
They took the city and expelled the Moors from it.
led third crusade, made 3 year peace treaty with Saladin for Christian rights to Jerusalem do to brother Prince John trying to seize English throne
Pope Celestine III calls for crusade against pagans of the Baltic
Present day Latvia
To liberate Jerusalem
Ignoring excommunication, Emperor Frederick lead crusade to Palestine & retakes Jerusalem through negotiations instead of using force
One of most successful
King Louis IX of France, led most funded crusade took Egyptian port city of Damietta w/o opposition gets himself and entire army captured in hopes of taking Cairo.
in response to King Peters support of the Sicilian rebels
The Fall of Acre (to Muslim Mamluks) marks the end of the Crusader states.
King Phillip IV ordered the arrest of all of the Knights Templar in France. Under torture the Templars confessed. The last Grand Master of the order Jacques de Molay & Geoffrey de Charny , preceptor of Normandy, faced with life imprisonment recanted their confessions and were burnt at the stake.