The Medieval era in music history was one of the very first. Not many instruments existed at the time so innovation was extremely limited. Some of the most important parts of music came out of this period such as the staff and the Gregorian chant which paved the way for polyphony.
Gregorian chant was invented, also known as plainchant.
Organum is created, which is described as an early form of counterpoint (Form of polyphony showing contrasting voices)
Invention of the staff by a monk named Guido de Arezzo
The Renaissance was the beginning of a movement away from liturgical music and away from the church with music becoming more secular and free willed.
Beginning of experimentation with cantus firmus (form of polyphony, very similar to organum)
The French Chanson was invented (song set to French text)
Italian Madrigal is invented around this time (polyphonic secular music performed in groups of 4 to 6 people)
Reformation sparked by Martin Luther, including changes such as hymns and chorales (songs sang in German context)
Council of Trent meets to discuss complaints against church music
First known meeting of the Florentine Camerata (group of musicians brought together to discuss art and were believed to revive greek drama)
Beginning of early opera (stage work involving music, costumes and scenes to portray a story to the audience)
The Baroque era focused on a lot of exaggeration, hence the name which when translated means bizarre. The baroque period consisted of a lot of exaggerated music with a lot of intensity included. Early opera began in this time and music became a very artistic part of daily life.
Around this time musicians began to highly implement the combination of keyboard and bass instruments in music. Along with this many other improvisions began. Suites (collection of short musical pieces played in chronological order), and Sonatas (composition with instrumental soloist) were invented in this general time frame but do not maintain a specific date
Bach was born
Italian opera became more immersive and expansive. The harpsichord was also given much higher importance and recognized at this point in time
The classical era, following the baroque period in music consisted of many more innovations and new styles of music, some of the most prominent involving the newest instrument, the piano. The era also focused a lot on the musicians rather than the music itself leading to some figures such as Mozart and Beethoven
Bach was offered a position to work with royalty and took it, leading to him becoming more famous
Piano was finally invented as opposing to the Harpsichord
Joseph Haydn is born
Chamber music with a string quartet became very popular at this time, including much more secular music due to being paid for private shows
Vienna became one of the most popular places for studying music and composition
Birth of Ludwig Von Beethoven
Mozart moves to Vienna
The Romantic area followed the Classic era, focus on the intellectual aspect of music such as how it was composed, and included a much higher use of opera considering the fact the opera now had many new instruments such as the piano and more.
The Harmonica is invented
French bassoon is redesigned
Ludwig Von Beethoven dies
Franz Schubert dies
The first saxophone is patented
The first grand piano ever is created
Phonograph is patented which changed way music was listened to