PERIOD 2 TIMELINE

Perisan Empire

Persian Empire Lifetime

553 BCE - 600 CE

Religious Tolerance

550 BCE

Cyrus the Great was relatively liberal. While he himself ruled according to Zoroastrian beliefs, he made no attempt to impose Zoroastrianism on the people of his subject territories. The Jewsmost famously benefited from this; Cyrus permitted them to return to Jerusalem from exile in Babylon, and rebuild their temple. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

Zoroastrianism

550 BC

Cyrus the Great was relatively liberal. While he himself ruled according to Zoroastrian beliefs, he made no attempt to impose Zoroastrianism on the people of his subject territories. The Jewsmost famously benefited from this; Cyrus permitted them to return to Jerusalem from exile in Babylon, and rebuild their temple. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

Cyrus the Great Expans the Empire

550 BC

Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean Seaand Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

Women Tended to the Farm

550 BCE

Women tended to their own domesticated animals. Education for women was limited. This event addresses the theme Development of Social Structure because it shows the difference in expectations and views of men vs. women.

The Prophecy about Cyrus

536 BC

Two hundred years before Babylon is conquered, the prophet Isaiah has written of a great ruler named Cyrus who allows the Jews to rebuild their temple. When the scroll is read to Cyrus, he commands that the captive Jews of Babylon be allowed to return to rebuild their holy city. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

Satrapies

521 BC

The satrapies formed a system which made it possible to rule over the whole Achaemenid territory, to raise and forward taxes, to recruit military forces, and to control local bureaucracies. Dealing with crises and uprisings was also the responsibility of satraps, as was defense against external threats.This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

Canal of the Pharaoh

520 BC

Completion of the canal linking the Nile River with the Red Sea by Darius I of Persia. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the innovation that occurred in the Mauryan empire.

Hebrews Rebuild Solomon's Temple

520 BC - 519 BC

Cyrus the Great was relatively liberal. While he himself ruled according to Zoroastrian beliefs, he made no attempt to impose Zoroastrianism on the people of his subject territories. The Jews most famously benefited from this; Cyrus permitted them to return to Jerusalem from exile in Babylon, and rebuild their temple. This act of kindness made a huge impact on Judaism. Zoroastrian philosophy powerfully influenced post-Exilic Judaism. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about the creation of monumental architecture drove people create more complicated cultures.

Persepolis is New Capitol

518 BC

The great city of Persepolis was built in terraces up from the river Pulwar to rise on a larger terrace of over 125,000 square feet, partly cut out of the Mountain Kuh-e Rahmet . The Location made it hard for enemies to get to it especially in the rainy season. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions.

Royal Road

450 BCE

Persian Royal Road, ancient road running from Susa, the ancient capital of Persia, across Anatolia to the Aegean Sea, a distance of more than 1,500 miles (2,400 km). ... Alexander the Great made use of the Royal Road in his invasion and conquest of the Persian empire. This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about different groups of people connected through trade to support the people of each individual satrapies.

Indian Empire

MAURYAN: Standardized Metal Coinage

325 bce

Coins were minted by the government. The unification of the currency across the empire made commerce a lot more economical, and it helped the empire keep better track of what is going on in the empire. This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about how a small administration change affects the whole of an empire.

India (Mauryan & Gupta Dynasty) Lifetime

322 BC - 550 CE

(Mauryan & Gupta Dynasty)

MAURYAN: Indian Ocean Trade Network

322 BC

The Mauryan began to play a pivotal role in the development of Indian Ocean trade networks, and act as a bridge for goods and ideas between the Middle East and Southeast Asia. This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about different groups of people connected through trade to support the people of each individual empire

MAURYAN: Building Stupas

310 BC

Ashoka built 84,000 stupas (commemorative Buddhists buildings used as a place of meditation), served as an example to many Chinese and Japanese rulers who imitated Ashoka’s initiative.This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies and beliefs were spread throughout the world, transforming spiritual cults into world religions.

MAURYAN: Ashoka Switches to Buddhism

301 BC

The Mauryan empire played a key role in the spread of Buddhism. It is quite possible that it was the Mauryan period which saw Buddhism's establishment as a major religion within ancient India - a development encouraged by official policy under Asoka.This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies and beliefs were spread throughout the world, transforming spiritual cults into world religions.

MAURYAN: Invention of the Chariot

300 BC

Invention of the CHARIOT 300BC At its height the Maurya Empire had 750,000 soldiers and made advances in the weapons and armor of their military. The Mauryan military was reported to have over 9000 chariots. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the innovation that occurred in the Mauryan empire.

MAURYAN: Arthasastra Written

283 BC

The Arthasastra was a religious scripture that explained how to deal with women The ancient scripture dictated that women were allowed to have public jobs and married women could own land.. Women played a key role in many epics and religious scriptures. This event addresses the theme Development of Social Structure because it shows the difference in expectations and views of men vs. women.

MAURYAN: Ashoka Conquered Kalinga Kingdom

262 BC

Asoka goes on to defeat the Kalinga kingdom. Although successful, over 100,000 soldiers and civilians are killed in the conquest, including many of Asoka's own forces. Asoka personally witnesses the consequences of his aggression and decides to renounce war. He converts to Buddhism and sends missionaries to spread Buddhism throughout Asia. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies and beliefs drove people to have conflict.

MAURYAN: Edicts of Ashoka

260 BCE

The Edicts of Asoka are spread throughout the empire. They outline the moral teachings of the emperor, including banning slavery, equal punishment under the law, and the fair treatment of animals. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions.

MAURYAN: Buddhist Missionary Expedition to Sri Lanka

251 BC

his event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies and beliefs were spread throughout the world, transforming spiritual cults into world religions.

MAURYAN: Lion Capital of Ashoka is Built

250 BCE

Asoka builds the Lion Capital of Asoka, a sculpture of four Indian lions back to back, at the important Buddhist site of Sarnath. This eventually becomes the emblem of India. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies and beliefs were spread throughout the world, transforming spiritual cults into world religions.

GUPTA: Administrative Division of the Empire

320 AD

The Empire was classified into separate administrative divisions like Rajya, Rashtra, Desha, Mandala, etc. The administrative division helped the rulers to systematically control their territories. The provinces were divided into numerous districts and a Vishayapati was appointed to control it. They were assisted in this work by his council of representatives. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions.

GUPTA: Standard Coin

322 AD

King Skandagupta changed the old dinar standard of coinage and introduced a new suvarna standard. This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about how a small administration change affects the whole of an empire.

GUPTA: Women Received Education

322 AD

Primary education could be procured by the people. Formal and higher education was procured by staying in agraharas or monasteries. Women were allowed to obtain education. There were many educational institutions set- up and cities like Pataliputra, Ayodhya and Nasik were significant educational centers. This event addresses the theme Development of Social Structure because it shows the difference in expectations and views of men vs. women.

GUPTA: The Theory that is the Earth is Round

330 CE

One of the important developments was Aryabhatta’s theory that the earth is round in shape and not flat. Aryabhatta also proved that the earth revolves around its own axis every day. He was of the opinion that the motion of stars was a result of the motion caused by the rotation of the earth This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the innovation that occurred in the Gupta empire.

GUPTA: Faxian is born.

Approx. 337 ce

Faxian, a famed Chinese scholar, is born. He goes on to record and publish many of the intellectual advances of the Gupta period. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

GUPTA: Iron Piller

368 CE

The pillar is an illustration of the skills of the Gupta people. One of the crucial achievements in science was the development made in metallurgy and it is evident from the construction of the Iron Pillar. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the innovation that occurred in the Gupta empire.

GUPTA: Kalidasa Produces His Great Work

380 CE

Kalidasa, revered as the greatest Sanskrit poet and dramatist, releases his work as a part of Chandragupta's court. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

GUPTA: Aryabhata is born

476 CE

Aryabhata, one of the greatest mathematician-astronomers of the Indian classical age, is born. He goes on to publish major works, including the Aryabhatiya, a compendium that covers arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultur

GUPTA: The Creation of The Number System

498 CE

The number system was developed by a mathematician and astronomer named Aryabhatta in 498 CE. This system became known as the Arabic numerals, but it is really a Gupta accomplishment. These numerals paved the way for scientific discoveries during the Gupta Empire as well as today. Another notable accomplishment by the Gupta was developing zero and a decimal system. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

GUPTA: Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh is built

500 CE

Construction begins on the Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh, which famously represents the ornate Gupta style of architecture. It is one of the earliest-built Hindu temples still standing today. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about the creation of monumental architecture drove people create more complicated cultures.

Chinese Empire

QIN: Legalism

261 BCE

The powerful Qin statesman Lord Shang Yang passes a number of reforms throughout the state. He promotes the strict political philosophy of Legalism and establishes the Qin capital at Xianyang. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions.

QIN: Terracota Warriors

221 BC

The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

China (Qin & Han Dynasty) Lifetime

220 BCE - 200 CE

Qin & Han Dynasty

QIN: Standardized Writting System

220 BCE

The writing system of China becomes standardized by the government. he standardized the written character, making the Qinzhuan the standard font. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions.

QIN: Great Wall of China

218 BCE

Hoping to protect the country from invasion, Shi Huangdi orders that the previously-built portions of the Great Wall of China be connected into one long, unbroken structure. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about the creation of monumental architecture drove people create more complicated cultures.

QIN: Nobility Gain Much Power

217 BCE

King Ping of Zhou transfers titles of nobility and huge estates to the chief of Qin. This elevation allows Qin to become more ambitious and better fend off attacks from surrounding regions. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions.

QIN: Book Burnings

213 BCE

As part of his Legalist political beliefs, Shi Huangdi requires that all books that do not support Legalism be destroyed. He orders these books to be burned, and only texts on farming, medicine, and predictions are saved. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions.

QIN: Scholars Executed

212 BCE

On the advice of his chief advisor Li Siu, Shi Huangdi orders scholars to be executed on a large scale, since many scholars opposed his book burnings. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

QIN: Standardized Weights

210 BCE

In the economy, the standardized weights and measures and stipulated that the round coin with square hole should be the coin used in the country. This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about how a small administration change affects the whole of an empire.

QIN: Peasant Rebillion

210 BCE

Based on the interpretation of omens and inspired by utopian Daoist ideolgy, several hundred thousand peasants rebel against the Qin dynasty. The emperor is too weak to effectively control the rebellion.This event addresses the theme Development of Social Structure because it shows the difference in expectations and views of nobles vs. peasants.

QIN: Umbrella is Invented

210 BC

In written records, the oldest reference to a collapsible umbrella dates to the year 21 A.D., when Wang Mang had one designed for a ceremonial four-wheeled carriage. The 2nd century commentator Fu Qian added that this collapsible umbrella of Wang Mang’s carriage had bendable joints which enabled them to be extended or retracted. A 1st century collapsible umbrella has since been recovered from the tomb of Wang Guang at the Korean site of the Lelang Commandery, illustrated in a work by Harada and Komai. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the innovation that occurred in the Qin Dynasty.

HAN: Silk Road Opening

206 BC

The opening of the Silk Road was probably the major economic achievement of the Han Dynasty. Emperor Wu took the initiative to set out on diplomatic missions to various rulers in Central Asia. This led to the exploration of trade routes that linked Xi’an to the Levant coast on the Mediterranean and opened up new roads for merchants. This increased the trade and economic prosperity of the empire and also led to a constant cultural exchange between several cultures This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about how a small administration change affects the whole of an empire.

HAN: Standardized Coin

206 BC

The 5-zhu-coin 五銖錢 was still the standard coin currency. With an increasing economical output, especially growing in southern China where more and more people immigrated from the north, traffic became more intensive. This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about how a small administration change affects the whole of an empire.

HAN: New capital of the Han Dynasty

202 BCE

After defeating the final rebellion against him, Gaozu establishes Chang'an as the capital of the Han Dynasty. The capital is strategically located at the convergence of all major roads. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

HAN: Empire Expanded

101 BCE

After a series of military campaigns in all directions, Emperor Wudi adds a huge amount of territory to the Chinese empire, including southern China, central Vietnam, and north and central Korea. He consolidates control over his empire in 101 BCE. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

HAN: State-Owned Slaves

81 BC

Corvee work was indeed an important economical factor during the Han period, enslavement was the result of debt, crime or war. This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about how a small administration change affects the whole of an empire

HAN: Large-Scale Census of Population

2 CE

In the oldest surviving large-scale census, the Han record the number of people living in their empire. The census shows over 250,000 living in the capital of Chang'an, and the oldest surviving large-scale census of all history, which reports 57,671,400 people in 2 CE. This event addresses the theme Development of Social Structure because it shows the government ran smoother by having a more effective administration.

HAN: Agricultural Innovation

25 CE

The spade, shovel, pick, and plow were used for tillage, the hoe for weeding, the rake for loosening the soil, and the sickle for harvesting crops This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the innovation that occurred in the Han dynasty.

HAN: Records of the Grand Historian

145 CE

The largest Chinese historiographic work, known as the “Records of the Grand Historian”, was written during the Han Dynasty by Sima Qian, who is referred to as the father of Chinese historiography. This work is a vast general history of China which covers a period of over 2,000 years, from the mythical times of the Yellow Emperor (the founder of the first Chinese dynasty, the Xia) to his own time during the reign of Emperor Wu (also known as Wu Di). This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

HAN: Missionaries Get more Followers to Buddhism

148 CE

Buddhist missionary An Shigao settles in the capital of Luoyang, where he produces a number of translations of Indian Buddhist texts. He attract a number of followers to Buddhism. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

HAN: Smallpox

164 CE - 180 CE

Smallpox was especially deadly in the period 164-180, C.E. This, together with wars and invasion reduced the Han population further to roughly forty million. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the a natural disease that occurred and affected society as a whole.

HAN: Yellow Turban Rebellion

184 CE

After years of weak central rule and growing corruption within the government, a large peasant rebellion breaks out. Known as the Yellow Turban Rebellion, it threatens the imperial capital at Luoyang, but the Han ultimately quash the revolt. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions.

Roman Empire

Julius Caesar Becomes Dictator of Rome

45 BC

Julius Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March by Marcus Brutus. They hope to bring back the republic, but civil war breaks out instead. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

Roman Empire Lifetime

31 BCE - 476 CE

Rome Becomes A Republic

3 CE

The last king is expelled and Rome is now ruled by senators. There is a constitution with laws and Rome becomes a complex republican government. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

Colosseum

80 AD

The Colosseum was built in 80 AD. The completion of the Colosseum was celebrated with 100 days of games. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about the creation of monumental architecture drove people create more complicated cultures.

Latin Residents of Rome Can Become Citizens

89 CE

Freeborn residents of Italy (until 89 BCE, when they were all granted full citizenship) and of certain other Roman municipalities who had some legal rights but were not full Roman citizens. Former slaves who had been informally freed by Roman citizens were a special category, “Junian Latins. This event addresses the theme Development of Social Structure because it shows the difference in expectations and views of citizens vs. foreigners.

Hadrian Wall

122 CE

The Hadrian Wall was built in 122 AD. It was a long wall built across northern England in an effort to keep the barbarians out. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about the creation of monumental architecture drove people create more complicated

The Antonine Plague

165 AD - 180 Ad

Roman soldiers that returned from Mesopotamian War started the spread of the disease. Including substantial army deaths, the outbreaks decimated an estimated two thirds of the Roman population, killing roughly 2000 people per day. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the a natural disease that occurred and affected society as a whole.

Standardized Coinage System

211 CE

The unification of the currency across the empire made commerce a lot more economical, and it helped the empire keep better track of what is going on in the empire. This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about how a small administration change affects the whole of an empire.

Foreigners can become Citizens

212 CE

all other freeborn men and women who lived in Roman territories. In 212 CE most freeborn people living within the Roman empire were granted Roman citizenship. This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about different groups of people connected through trade to support the people of each individual empire. This event addresses the theme Development of Social Structure because it shows the difference in expectations and views of citizens vs. foreigners.

Christainity becomes Official Religion

380 AD

Theodosius I proclaims Christianity as the sole, official religion of the Roman Empire in 380 AD. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

Malaria

450 AD

The earliest known case of malaria is from Roman DNA dated to 450 AD. An excavation of a village shows signs of a serious malaria problem, with bone tests and traces of honeysuckle, a plant used to treat fevers. Deforestation and sanitation issues were the main causes of malaria. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the a natural disease that occurred and affected society as a whole.

Greek Empire

Greek Empire Lifetime

699 BCE - 323 BC

First Olympic Games

699 BCE

The first Olympic Games were held in the Greek city of Olympia. It allowed all city states to rest any of their arguments to celebrate sports and the courage of soldiers. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

Athen's Establishes Offices of Government

687 BC

the Greek city of Athens established a city government with elected officials. The Archon was their first elected official. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

Athenian Laws Established

621 BC

Draco was a lawyer in Athens, Greece. He made a list of "laws" with punishments for breaking them.This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

Aesop's Fables

620 BC - 560 BC

Aesop’s Fables are the world’s best known collection of morality tales. The fables, numbering 725, were originally told from person-to-person as much for entertainment purposes but largely as a means for relaying or teaching a moral or lesson. These early stories are essentially allegorical myths often portraying animals or insects e.g. foxes, grasshoppers, frogs, cats, dogs, ants, crabs, stags, and monkeys representing humans engaged in human-like situations (a belief known as animism). Ultimately the fables represent one of the oldest characteristics of human life: storytelling. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about different philosophies, discoveries and beliefs drove people create more complicated cultures.

Democracy

508 BC

In 508BC 'democracy' began in Athens. We still use this term today meaning 'ruled by the people'. Male citizens were given the chance to vote in order to decide how the city-state should be run. This is often said to be one of their greatest ideas. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

Athenian Standard Currency

500 BC

Athenian drachma became officially equal to 4.3 grams of silver. The unification of the currency across the empire made commerce a lot more economical, and it helped the empire keep better track of what is going on in the empire. This event addresses the theme Creation, Expansion and Economic Systems because it is about how a small administration change affects the whole of an empire.

Persian War

490 BC

The Persians ruled much of the Mesopotamian world. The Greeks went to war with them.This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs drove people to have conflict.

Parthenon

447 BC - 432 BC

In 432BC the Parthenon in Athens was finished. This huge temple was built to house a statue of the Goddess Athena. She was put there to look over and protect the city-state. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about the creation of monumental architecture drove people create more complicated cultures

Bubonic Plague

430 BC - 429 BC

Greece was struck by an outbreak in the summer of 430 or 429 BC that left them all too familiar with the dreaded disease, that killed a majority of some city states. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the a natural disease that occurred and affected society as a whole.

Women Scholars & Philosophers

415 BC

Even Plato had a female student—Axiothea, who dressed like a man. The most famous woman philosopher was Hypatia of Alexandrta, who died in A.D. 415. The head of a famous school, she wrote works on astonamy and philosophy. A Christian mob, filled with hatred of all things pagen, murdered Hypatia during a riot. This event addresses the theme Development of Social Structure because it shows the difference in expectations and views of men vs. women.

Mayan Empire

Mayan Empire Lifetime

600 BCE - 250 AD

Standard Writing System

600 BCE

The Maya writing system is considered by archaeologists to be the most sophisticated system ever developed in Mesoamerica. The Maya wrote using 800 individual signs or glyphs, paired in columns that read together from left to right and top to bottom.This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the innovation that occurred in the Mauryan empire.

Calander

400 BCE

The first Mayan calendars are carved into stone.The Maya calendar consists of several cycles or counts of different lengths. The 260-day count is known to scholars as the Tzolkin. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the innovation that occurred in the Mauryan empire.

Monarchy Rules

300 BC

The Maya adopt the idea of a monarchy for their government. They are now ruled by kings. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

City States Appear

100 BC

Tikal develops into a city-state of about 40 thousand people.This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

Pyramids

100 BC

The first pyramids are built. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about the creation of monumental architecture drove people create more complicated cultures.

Teotihuacan

100 BC

The city-state of Teotihuacan is established in the Valley of Mexico. It influences the Maya culture for many years. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about the creation of monumental architecture drove people create more complicated cultures.

First Royal Dynasty Begins

219 AD - 238 AD

Yax Moch Xoc becomes the first king of Tikal. All Maya cities have independent states with their own rulers. This event addresses the theme State Building & Conflict because it is about different philosophies and beliefs that outlined how the empire is run, sometimes leading to rebellions

Moche Empire

Moche Empire Lifetime

1 CE - 800 CE

Irrigation More Widespread

100 CE

Moche society was agriculturally based, with a significant level of investment in the construction of a network of irrigation canals for the diversion of river water to supply their crops. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the innovation that occurred in the Mauryan empire.

Temple of Sun Built

200 CE

Huaca del Sol is a seven tiered pyramid, the largest in Peru, 41 meters tall and 230 meters long. The Moon pyramid is slightly smaller in size, as it should be, although its size doesn't diminish its grandeur and beauty in any way. Both pyramids were built out of adobe bricks, without any material to hold the stones together. Experts estimate that approximately 130 million bricks were used to build Huaca del Sol. It is believed that Huaca del Sol may have served for administrative and residential functions, while Huaca de la Luna served as a ceremonial and sacrificial place. This event addresses the theme Interaction of Cultures because it is about the creation of monumental architecture drove people create more complicated cultures.

Sand Blew over Moche Crops

550 CE

In c. 550 CE the Moche canal systems and agricultural fields became covered in sand (blown inland from the coast where it had been deposited by erosive flooding from the valleys), and the population left the area, resettling further north in the Lambayeque Valley, notably at the sites of Sipán and Pampa Grande. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the a natural disaster that occurred and affected society as a whole

Collapse due to Climate Change

800 CE

Studies of ice cores drilled from glaciers in the Andes reveal climatic events between 536 and 594 CE, possibly a super El Niño, that resulted in thirty years of intense rain and flooding followed by thirty years of drought, part of the aftermath of the climate changes of 535–536. These weather events could have disrupted the Moche way of life and shattered their faith in their religion, which had promised stable weather through sacrifices. This event addresses the theme Humans & The Environment because it is about the a natural disaster that occurred and affected society as a whole.