New France Timeline

Events

1534-1541 - Jacques Cartier First Voyages

1534 - 1541

1 - Sent by King of France to find a route to _______________
2 - Was seeking precious metals (mercantilism), never found any
3 - Arrived on _______________ in 1534, erected a cross to claim the territory for France
4 - Made three voyages to New France: _, _, ____
5 - Did NOT succeed in establishing a permanent colony

1600 - Tadoussac

1600

1 - First __________ in New France
2 - Centralizes trade between French & aboriginals
3 - Montagnais: French establish an important alliance with the _______, ____, and _______ nations; serve as intermediary for other aboriginal groups

1608 - Foundation of Quebec City

1608

1 - First permanent settlement in New France
2 - Established by _______________
3 - "Kebec": Place where the river narrows
4 - Ideal location to trade & transport furs
5 - Ideal location for military (narrow river = monitor ship traffic)

1611, 1615 - Religious Orders

1611

1 - 1611: _______________ arrive in New France
2 - 1615: _______________ arrive in New France
3 - Made up of missionaries sent to promote Catholicism in the colony
4 - ____________: Expose and convert people to Catholicism (Natives)
5 - Missionaries learn Native languages; build churches & schools
6 - _
___________: Native person who settles in village run by a religious order

1627 - Company of 100 Associates

1627

1 - French King's chief minister (____________) creates this new company and gives them monopoly of fur in New France
2 - All _
___________ in New France must now be sold/exchanged through the 100 Associates
3 - Made up of 100 rich investors/shareholders (like Richelieu, Champlain, etc.)
4 - In return for monopoly on fur, 100 Associates Company promises to evangelize Natives & to recruit 4000 colonists to populate New France
5 - 1634: 100 Associates establish _______________ Fort: Located at intersection of Saint Lawrence River and Saint Maurice River = ideal for transporting furs

1627 - Seigneurial System

1627

1 - France orders Company of 100 Associates to divide land bordering _______________ River into long, narrow chunks perpendicular to river
2 - Each chunk of land is called a '____________'
3 - _
________: Owner of a chunk of land known as a 'seigneury'; splits land into smaller chunks called 'censives'
4 - _
___________: Peasant / farmer who receives a plot of land from a seigneur
5 - In exchange for the plot of land (censive), the censitaire has to regularly pay seigneur money and/or produce from their farm

1639 - Arrival of New Religious Orders

1639 - 1659

1 - Following in the footsteps of the Jesuits and Recollets, more religious orders arrive in New France (Ursulines, Augustines, Sulpicians, Congrégation de Notre-Dame, Hospitalliers of St. Joseph)
2 - Responsible for social support and guidance for colonists ( 1) ____________; 2) _________; 3) ____________)
3 - Some religious orders also offer services to Natives

1642 - Foundation of Ville-Marie

1642

1 - 1639: Sociéte de Notre-Dame de Montréal populate island of _______________
2 - Goals: 1) ____________; 2) ____________
3 - 1642: _______________ and _______________ found Ville-Marie
4 - Starts as a religious community; in 1642 they found the Hotel-Dieu de Montréal hopsital

1663 - Royal Government of New France

1663

1 - For over 40 years, 100 Associates prioritize their fur trade profits over their duty to populate colony. In response, King Louis XIV ends their monopoly on fur trade begins reforms.
2 - King Louis XIV establishes a new royal government in New France
3 - Goals: Increase population of colony; exploit natural resources; stimulate economy
4 - Organization (in hierarchical order):










1663-1673 - Jean Talon: Population Growth

1663 - 1673

1 - ____________: Young French woman, orphaned & poor, sent to New France to marry a colonist
2 - Men greatly outnumbered women in New France; these women were sent to create a balance between men/women & encourage population growth by having many children
3 - Filles du Roy given a _
___________ (money/possessions) in return for marrying a colonist in New France
4 - King gives prisoners and smugglers from France given the right to settle in New France
5 - _______________: Military regiment given opportunity to settle all of its troops in New France

1690 - Siege of Quebec City

1690

1 - _______________ military tries to take over territory of New France
2 - Using the military strategy of _______________, the French and Native allies protect their territory

1701 - Great Peace of Montreal

1701

1713 - Treaty of Utrecht

1713

1 - 1701: Conflict between European nations known as _______________ spills into North American colonies
2 - After 12 years of war, _______________ is signed, ends war in North America between _______________ and _______________
3 - 1755: Acadians, part of Great Britain, deported to _______________ for fear that they may help _______________ in the war

1754 - War of the Conquest

1754 - 1760

1 - War starts between France and Great Britain in _______________ Valley; this is a strategic area for trade with _______________
2 - Budget and military strength of Thirteen Colonies far greater than _______________

1759 - Battle of Plains of Abraham

1759

1 - General _______________ leads British troops to Quebec City at night
2 - French lieutenant general _______________ defends territory
3 - Short battle; many die
4 - _______________ win war, take possession of city

1760 - Battle of Sainte-Foy

1760

1 - _______________ return to recapture city of Quebec
2 - French commander _______________ leads 7000 troops into Quebec City
3 - British commander _______________ loses battle
4 - British troops retreat to city; French are unable to capture Quebec City
5 - _______________ military forces arrive; _______________ have no chance of retaking Quebec City