-Jasmin Farid Timeline that shows how the schools of thought behind strategy has changed, beginning with the Design School and ending with current thinking
Sees strategy formation as achieving the essential fit between internal strengths and weaknesses and external threats and opportunities.
*Senior management formulates clear, simple, and unique strategy.
Reflects the design school, except that the process is not just cerebral but formal, and broken down into distinct steps,
from the analysis situation to the execution of the strategy.
*Staff planners replace Senior Managers
Strategy reduces to generic positions selected through formalized analysis of industry situations.
*Planners become analysts.
Centered the process on the chief executive; shifted strategies from precise designs, plans, or positions to vague visions or broad perspectives.
Analyses how people perceive patterns and process information.Concentrates on what is happening in the mind of the strategist and how it processes the information.
**Cope or create.
Strategies are emergent, strategists can be found through-out the organization, and so-called formulation and implementation intertwine.
-Micro power sees the development of strategies within the organization as essentially political.
-Macro power views the organization as an entity that uses its power over others to negotiate "collective" strategies inits interest.
Focuses on common interest and integration. Strategy formation is a social process rooted in culture.
The strategy is a response to the challenges imposed by the external environment. Includes contingency theory, population ecology, and institutional theory.
Sees organization as configuration: coherent clusters of characteristics and behaviors, that integrates the claims of other schools. Strategy formation is a process of
transforming the organisation from one type of decision-making structure to another.
Blend of Design & Learning
Cultural & Learning
E.G. Scenario Analysis and stakeholder analysis
Planning, learning or power
Cognitive and Cultural
Learning & Environmental
Environmental, Power or Cognitive
Environmental & Entrepreneurial
Configuration & Entrpreneurial
Power & Positioning
Positioning & Power
“Strategy formation is judgmental designing, intuitive reasoning, and emergent learning; it is about transformation as well as perpetuation; it must involve individual cognition and social interaction, cooperative as well as conflictive; it has to include analyzing before and after as well as negotiating during; and all this may be in response to a demanding environment. Try to omit any of this, and watch what happens!”