Mintzberg and Lampel Timeline

-Jasmin Farid Timeline that shows how the schools of thought behind strategy has changed, beginning with the Design School and ending with current thinking

Main

Design School (1970s)

1

Sees strategy formation as achieving the essential fit between internal strengths and weaknesses and external threats and opportunities.

*Senior management formulates clear, simple, and unique strategy.

**Fit

Planning School (mid 1970s - 1980s)

2

Reflects the design school, except that the process is not just cerebral but formal, and broken down into distinct steps,
from the analysis situation to the execution of the strategy.

*Staff planners replace Senior Managers

**Formalize

Positioning School (1980s)

3

Strategy reduces to generic positions selected through formalized analysis of industry situations.

*Planners become analysts.

**Analyze

Entrepreneurial School

4

Centered the process on the chief executive; shifted strategies from precise designs, plans, or positions to vague visions or broad perspectives.

**Envision

Cognitive School (1980s)

5

Analyses how people perceive patterns and process information.Concentrates on what is happening in the mind of the strategist and how it processes the information.

**Cope or create.

Learning School

6

Strategies are emergent, strategists can be found through-out the organization, and so-called formulation and implementation intertwine.

**Learn

Power School

7

-Micro power sees the development of strategies within the organization as essentially political.
-Macro power views the organization as an entity that uses its power over others to negotiate "collective" strategies inits interest.

**Promote

Cultural School (1980s)

8

Focuses on common interest and integration. Strategy formation is a social process rooted in culture.

**Coalesce

Environmental School

9

The strategy is a response to the challenges imposed by the external environment. Includes contingency theory, population ecology, and institutional theory.

**React

Configuration School

10

Sees organization as configuration: coherent clusters of characteristics and behaviors, that integrates the claims of other schools. Strategy formation is a process of
transforming the organisation from one type of decision-making structure to another.

**Integrate/ Transform

Dynamic Capabilities

11

Blend of Design & Learning

Resource Based theory

12

Cultural & Learning

Soft techniques

13

E.G. Scenario Analysis and stakeholder analysis
Planning, learning or power

Constructionism

14

Cognitive and Cultural

Chaos & Evolutionary Theory

15

Learning & Environmental

Institutional Theory

16

Environmental, Power or Cognitive

Intrapreneurship (venturing)

17

Environmental & Entrepreneurial

Revolutionary Change

18

Configuration & Entrpreneurial

Negotiated Strategy

19

Power & Positioning

Strategic Maneuvering

20

Positioning & Power

Evolutionary!!!!

21 - 25

“Strategy formation is judgmental designing, intuitive reasoning, and emergent learning; it is about transformation as well as perpetuation; it must involve individual cognition and social interaction, cooperative as well as conflictive; it has to include analyzing before and after as well as negotiating during; and all this may be in response to a demanding environment. Try to omit any of this, and watch what happens!”