Discovered miniscule quantities of matter in Ancient Greece - became the building blocks of Chemistry and main part of all life
Discovered that all matter is made of atoms
Produced table based on atomic weights, but arranged "periodically"
Electrons were first discovered as the constituents of cathode rays. J. J. Thomson showed the rays were composed of a previously unknown negatively charged particle, which was later named the electron.
Realized that there were small particles within the nucleus, detected a charge and realized there were subatomic particles within matter.
Frederick Soddy, an English radio chemist Explained aspects of radioactivity & first isotope discovered by JJ Thompson
The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom. It was discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
Detected very small particles with positive charges as opposed to the previous discovery of negative charges when conducting an experiment. Called these protons!
Used mathematical equations to determine where certain electron locations were and came up with model in layers with protons in one place and electrons in another.
Scientists Heisenberg, Burn, Jordan and Schrödinger worked to discover a mathematical application of the quantum theory- showcasing both matter and wave.
James Chadwick realized there were other uncharged particles within the nucleus wth same mass as protons. He experimented and they showed no charge but they were there.
Murray Gell-Mann looked at the table of known particles and the experimental data, and it was clear that the neutron and proton could be made up of three particles with fractional charges, which he then called quarks.