Approx. 1960

Plenty of tertiary and secondary jobs available
Immigration from Caribbean
Encouraged migration 472,000 people arrived
People moved to Urban areas
Purpose built towns eg Milton Keynes in 1967 to relieve issues behind over population
rich people started to live in towns and rural areas
social living conditions decreased
social housing-1950's
1968-425 houses built however there were very low quality



Economic conditions worsened- Liverpool was one key area
Liverpool's population was 750,000 in 1961 however dropped to 500,000 in 1981
Lots of people in poor conditions-eg no indoor toilet
very high unemployment
Redevelopment began in rural urban areas- demolition of older housing
London's population shrank due to the government officers moving out of London to areas of economic decline



Global economic recession and closed many factories
Left behind derelict urban land and buildings
Became areas of very little use
Much competition from countries such as Japan and South Korea
Container in transporting cargo meant less jobs in factories, ports and warehouses
Large scale redevelopment
London Dockland is an example this started in 1981- assimilation
Tax benefits and financial markets introduced to attract businesses
Counter urbanization- migration from urban areas to rural urban areas.
Easier accessibility to rural areas due to rail or motorway
High pull factors for better living conditions



The high rise flats during 1960/70s considered failure
Due to the high crime areas and many were infested with pests
They were replaced by new housing eg Holly Street Estate in Hackney
Regeneration of the cities
London drew in light industries and service industries as well as young adult workers for all sorts of jobs eg entertainment/jobs etc
Growth of the UK due to migration rather than natural increase
High migration due to political and economic instability in Africa/Eastern Europe and Middle East



Retail parks/industrial parks and out of town shopping centers
Rules about freedom of movement allowed immigration from countries joining the EU who sought better paid jobs in Uk cities and rural areas



Financial collapse worldwide recession secondary and tertiary businesses were devastated.
Increased unemployment and rate of high street closures
Competition from China especially with jobs
All cities and most urban areas had developed complex ethic mixes due to high immigration from Caribbean
Net migration at 240,000 people per year between 2004 and 2014
temporary students also increased between 2009-2011



Recession continued
redevelopment slowed
Charity shops and discount stores took place of empty shops
Suburban growth continued
Re-branding and regeneration
Many more migrants from Canary Islands and Greek Islands
London was helped by hosting the Olympics and this attracted more businesses
Increase in single person households
Super rich foreigners who invested in city center property