Period 2 Timeline


Siddhartha Gautama

563 BCE - 483 BCE

Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama), was a founder of the core beliefs of Buddhism. HE lived in India, during a time where the major focal point was academia and philosophy. Making big strides in a religion is what caught peoples attention, as he posed for the embodiment of Buddha himself.

Cyrus the Great

558 BCE - 530 BCE

Cyrus became king of the Persian tribes. This empire primarily expanded by conquering. Cyrus was a methodical thinker and action-taker, therefore allowing him to take siege over many civilizations and establishments in a short period of time.

Achaemenid Dynasty

558 BCE - 330 BCE

The Achaemenid Dynasty (empire), was the biggest empire to see the ancient world. Not only was this a successful empire, but it was known to be harmonious as well. The military was strong, which was a helpful asset to have in conquering surrounding land.


551 BCE - 479 BCE

Confucius was the man who initially started confucianism by questioning social and political order. Confucius was seen as an ethical man, who avoided questions or topics surrounding religion, or anything abstract. He became a teacher, being a very educationally driven person. Confucius strongly believed in humanity, and that it was something everyone should possess.

Founding of the Roman Republic

509 BCE - 27 BCE

The Roman Republic was lead by upper class citizens, who made all of the executive decisions for the republic. The lower class (plebeians) eventually took force and elected their own officials, because the two classes were so segregated. However, later on there were laws passed to give each citizen equal rights.

Roman Republic

509 BC - 27 BC

Led by a numerous amount of people, officials were elected. This however, was only done so by aristocratic members of the republic. Initially, there was a very clear distinction between the classes. This is, until a law was passed that gave everyone equal rights.

Greco-Persian Wars

499 BCE - 449 BCE

The Greco Persian Wars were a series of wars fought between Greece and Persia. In this time, Persia was under the rule of Darius. Greece initially won.

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

470 BCE - 322 BCE

Each of these Historical figures were all Greek Philosophers. Socrates posed questions meant to have man question his our mortality, and issues. Plato created "a systematic vision of the world, and human society" (Bentley 204). Aristotle focused on major human conflicts, and constructed powerful and meaningful arguments based upon this. He also wrote on physics, astronomy, phycology and ethics.


469 bc - 399 bc

Socrates is (was) a greek philosopher, who promoted ideas back in his life, and his teaching, all the way up to present day. His thoughts and motivations were driven by his ethical standpoints. Socrates served as a person who created a philosophical structure to be built upon for generations to come.

Peloponnesian Wars

431 BCE - 404 BCE

The Peloponnesian War was between Athens and Sparta. This war was fought over the Delian League. Sparta ultimately won, resulting in an all around weaker Greek poleis.

Alexander the great

356 BCE - 323 BCE

Alexander of Macedonia was labeled "Great", because of his ruthless and determined leadership qualities that led him to being a successful conqueror. . By gathering all of the forces that he could from Greece, he and his troops conquered the Persian Empire, the Egyptians, while forming and establishing the largest empire to date back in the time. Alexander believed he was a demigod as well, due to high praise throughout his uprising.

Mauryan Dynasty

321 BCE - 185 BCE

The Mauryan Dynasty was located primarily in northern and eastern India. Chandragupta Maurya came to rule after Alexander of Macedon stepped out of the picture. Farmers cultivated the economy.


268 BCE - 232 BCE

Emperor Ashoka was a brutal man, who had a ruthless military. In hopes of expanding the Mauryan Empire, Ashoka led his troops, and had a war (one of the bloodiest ever, according to historians). Interestingly enough, Ashoka later on converted to Buddhism.

Qin Dynasty and Shi Huangdi

221 BCE - 206 BCE

Qui Shi Huangdi standardized currency, law and bureaucracy. A system of roads, palaces and a capital were built, helping the dynasty to expand. Although he helped with unification during his rule, he was known to be cruel, and rejection of his ideas was punishable by death.

Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

The Han Dynasty was a period in which China made large political and technological advance, as well as the military becoming stringer. Trade was made more efficient by the silk road. The Han collapsed after many battles, and an inevitably deteriorating lack of resources.

Augustus (Octavian)

63 BCE - 14 CE

Delicate health aside, Augustus was considered to be one of the best rulers to ever serve in Rome. As an emperor, he kept peace, and helped the economy, arts and agriculture grow to it's full potential. This was considered the golden age of the Roman empire in every way.

Pax Romana

27 BC - 180 AD

During this time period, the Roman Empire reached it's largest amount of land area, while still keeping the people, government and stability secure. Pax Romana originally started when Octavian became the leader of the Roman Empire. Art and architecture advanced, as well as a road system, benefiting farmers, or other non-centrally located people, who were in need of resources. This was one of the most (if the most), peaceful times throughout the Roman Empire.


4 BCE - 30 CE

A historical figure that the Christians formed their community around, and recognized him as their savior. He had a reputation of teaching the love of God, and having possessed the power to heal people. He was crucified by the romans after seeming like he and his ideas of God were a threat to the Roman rule in Palestine.


100 CE - 940 CE

Axum was a kingdom located in northern Ethiopia during the early spread of Christianity. The merchants from the area traveled far and wide, because of their notoriety for it's markets. The eventual downfall of Axum was due to an invasion from Aksumite.

Yellow Turban Rebellion

184 CE - 205 CE

It was a peasant rebellion against their treatment during the Han dynasty. The rebels would wear yellow scarfs around their heads to signify their participation in their protest. The movement was eventually suppressed by the Han government, using their armies as forces.

Mayan Civilization

250 CE - 900 CE

The Mayan Civilization is located in modern day Mexico. The Mayans are primarily known for their 365 day calendar, and their hieroglyphics. The Mayans suffered a famine after killing most of each other off.

Collapse of western Roman Empire

285 CE - 476 CE

Rome divided into two parts, because it had grown to be so large, making it difficult to be maintained by simply one ruler. Western Rome was overthrown by a Germanic ruler (a barbarian). Meanwhile, there were economic problems, and other invasions from the huns, resulting in total chaos, and disorder.

Christianity in Rome

313 CE - present day

Christianity was made the official religion of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine, who also made christianity legal. Before the legalization of christianity, christians were seen as people to blame for acts of evil. Roman Catholicism is still practiced today.

Gupta Dynasty

320 CE - 550 CE

The Gupta dynasty is highly recognized for it's advancements in the arts, philosophy and religion. With little economic of governmental problems, this became known as India's "Golden Age". Chandragupta was the self established ruler of the Gupta.

Trans-Saharan trade

700 CE - 1300 CE

The Trans-Saharan trade tok place in sub-Saharan Africa and the northern Arab and Europe. Metals, salt and slaves were sought after in this trade route. Meanwhile, Islam was spreading within all of these regions as a result of trade.