Final separation between Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman) churches.
Construction on the cathedral in Pisa, Italy, begins.
Bermersheim vor der Höhe, Germany
Second Crusade begins.
Thomas Aquinas stops work on Summa Theologica, the basis of all Catholic theological teaching; never completes it.
At least 25 million people die in Europe's “Black Death” (bubonic plague).
Joan of Arc leads French against English, captured by Burgundians (1430) and turned over to the English, burned at the stake as a witch after ecclesiastical trial (1431).
County of Hainaut, Belgium
Ivan the Great rules Russia until 1505 as first czar; ends payment of tribute to Mongols.
First black slaves in America brought to Spanish colony of Santo Domingo.
Leonardo da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa. Michelangelo sculpts the David (1504).
Turks conquer Egypt, control Arabia. Martin Luther posts his 95 theses denouncing church abuses on church door in Wittenberg—start of the Reformation in Germany.
Troops of the Holy Roman Empire attack Rome, imprison Pope Clement VII—the end of the Italian Renaissance.
Shakespeare writes Hamlet
Jamestown, Virginia, established—first permanent English colony on American mainland.
Taj Mahal completed.
Westminster, United Kingdom
Isaac Newton's experiments with gravity.
Milton's Paradise Lost, widely considered the greatest epic poem in English.
Eisenach, Central Germany
Halle, Brandenburg, Germany
United Kingdom of Great Britain formed
Rohrau, Now Eastern Austria
The Boston Massacre.
The Boston Tea Party.
The Constitution of the United States signed.
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette executed.