Composers - Middle Ages to Classical Period

Middle Ages

Guido D' Arezzo Born and Dies

991 CE - 1033 CE

Arezzo, Italy
Nationality: Italian

Separation of State & Church

1054

1054
Final separation between Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman) churches.

Cathedral in Pisa, Italy Begins

1068

1068
Construction on the cathedral in Pisa, Italy, begins.

Hildegard von Bingen Born and Dies

1098 - 1179

Bermersheim vor der Höhe, Germany
Nationality: German

Leonin Born and Dies

1135 - 1201

Paris, France
Nationality: French

2nd Crusade Begins

1144

1144
Second Crusade begins.

Perotin Born and Dies

1160 - 1230

Paris, France
Nationality: French

Aquinas Stops Working on Summa Theologica

1273

1273
Thomas Aquinas stops work on Summa Theologica, the basis of all Catholic theological teaching; never completes it.

Machaut Born and Dies

1300 - 1377

Reims, France
Nationality: French

Black Plague Begins

1347

1347–1351
At least 25 million people die in Europe's “Black Death” (bubonic plague).

Joan of Arc Leads French

1428

1428
Joan of Arc leads French against English, captured by Burgundians (1430) and turned over to the English, burned at the stake as a witch after ecclesiastical trial (1431).

Renissance

Josquin Born and Dies

1450 - 1521

County of Hainaut, Belgium
Nationality: French

Ivan the Great

1462

1462
Ivan the Great rules Russia until 1505 as first czar; ends payment of tribute to Mongols.

Transportation of Slaves

1501

1501
First black slaves in America brought to Spanish colony of Santo Domingo.

Mona Lisa

1503

c. 1503
Leonardo da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa. Michelangelo sculpts the David (1504).

Jacques Arcadelt Born and Dies

1505 - 1568

Belgium
nationality: French

Martin Luther's 95 Theses

1517

1517
Turks conquer Egypt, control Arabia. Martin Luther posts his 95 theses denouncing church abuses on church door in Wittenberg—start of the Reformation in Germany.

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Born and Dies

1525 - 1594

Palestrina, Italy
Nationality: Italian

End of Italian Renissance

1527

Troops of the Holy Roman Empire attack Rome, imprison Pope Clement VII—the end of the Italian Renaissance.

Baroque

Claudio Monteverdi Born and Dies

1567 - 1643

Cremona, Italy
Nationality: Italian

Shakespeare's Hamlet

1601

Shakespeare writes Hamlet

First English Colony Established

1607

Jamestown, Virginia, established—first permanent English colony on American mainland.

Taj Mahal Completed

1643

Taj Mahal completed.

Henry Purcell Born and Dies

1659 - 1695

Westminster, United Kingdom
Nationality: British

Isacc Newton & Gravity

1664

Isaac Newton's experiments with gravity.

Milton, Paradise Lost

1667

Milton's Paradise Lost, widely considered the greatest epic poem in English.

Antonio Vivaldi Born and Dies

1678 - 1741

Venice, Italy
Nationality: Italian

Johann Sebastian Bach Born and Dies

1685 - 1750

Eisenach, Central Germany
Nationality: German

Handel Born and Dies

1685 - 1759

Halle, Brandenburg, Germany
Nationality: German

Scarlatti Born and Dies

1685 - 1757

Naples, Italy
Nationality: Italian

UK of Great Britain is Formed

1707

United Kingdom of Great Britain formed

Classical Era

Haydn Born and Dies

1732 - 1809

Rohrau, Now Eastern Austria
Nationality: Austrian

Mozart Born and Dies

1756 - 1791

Salzburg, Austria
Nationality: Roman

Beethoven Born and Dies

1770 - 1827

Bonn, Germany
Nationality: German

Boston Massacre

1770

The Boston Massacre.

Boston Tea Party

1773

The Boston Tea Party.

US Constitution Signed

1787

1787
The Constitution of the United States signed.

Execution

1793

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette executed.