Gabriel Shultz Professor Wilkins American Literature
Major work: "New English Canaan" (1637)
Thomas Morton was an activist during Puritan rule in Massachusetts. He founded the colony of Merrymount, which had practices that contrasted with the following area.
Major work: "The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America" (1650)
Anne Bradstreet was a modest writer who wrote about the different elements of the "Flesh and Spirit" side of humanity. She was the first woman in the English New World colonies to be published.
Major works: "Day of Doom" (1662) and "God's Controversy with New England" (1662)
Wigglesworth shows resentment towards Indians in some of his works. And often is contrasted with Morton. Wigglesworth also critiques the Puritans despite being one himself; he believes the strayed from their faith.
Major work: "Preparatory Meditation" (1682-1725)
Edward Taylor was raised with a Puritan background. Therefore, he requested his work not be published for fear of a social backlash to his family. These works were published 200 years later.
Major work: "Wonders of the Invisible World" (1693)
Cotton Mather was a supported of the Salem Witch Trials. He was similar to Wigglesworth in regard to wanting Puritans to return to their former roots.
Major work: "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" (1741)
Jonathan Edwards was a pastor that exemplified the extreme belief and way of thinking the Puritans embodied.
Major work: "Poor Richards Almanac" (1739)
Ben Franklin was a key diplomat and political activist during the revolutionary era. He is know for having all of the Puritan pros (work ethic and education) and none of their cons (extremism).
Major work: "To the King's Most Excellent Majesty" (1768)
Philis Wheately was an African American female who, despite her disadvantages, became a influential writer and was renowned by founding fathers, specifically George Washington.
Major works: "Rip Van Winkle" (1819) and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" (1820)
Washington Irving spoke of "Biological Destiny" in his works. He broke this order by writing of the American ideal of social mobility.
Major work: "Thanatopsis" (1817)
William Cullen Bryant is one of the fireside poets. He was a romanticist and a long time editor of the "New York Evening Post."
Major work: "Nature" (1836) and "The Poet" (1844)
Emerson was key in the Transcendentalist movement. He was a pastor like his father, but did not feel right for the role due to shaken faith. He went to Harvard through the generosity of his peers.
Major work: "The Scarlet Letter" (1850)
Hawthorne was a dark romanticist who was influenced by the Puritans. His work often invokes psychological reflection and underlying moral messages. Also friends with Margaret Fuller.
Major work: "Voices of the Night" (1839)
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was one of the five fireside poets. His work was esteemed at the time and he tried to capture the America work ethic.
Major work: "Snow-Bound: A Winter Idyl" (1866)
John Greenleaf Whittier is classified as a fireside poet. He was also a Quaker and Abolitionist.
Major work: "The Raven" (1845)
One of the best known writers in America, Edgar Allen Poe was undoubtedly influential. However, he was at odds with most other writers during his life.
Major work: "Woman in the Nineteenth Century" (1843)
Margaret Fuller was a Transcendentalist second only to Emerson. She was a feminist and a highly respected female. She was the editor for the Transcendentalist paper "The Dial." A nickname she had was Zenobia.
Major work: "Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience)" (1849)
Thoreau was a philosopher that was inspired by Emerson. He is most well associated with the act of civil disobedience. Not entirely endorsed by Emerson.
Major works: A Fable for Critics" (1848)
James Lowell is associated with the Fireside Poets. He was a romanticist and abolitionist.
Major work: "Leaves of Grass" (1855)
Walt Whitman was a transition from Transcendentalism to realism. He was also considered a hyper individualist and adored Emerson. He published a letter to him from Emerson without consent: this was a social taboo at the time.