Timeline of important events from the late 1400s to 1877.
moved the "Line of Demarcation" that divided America with the east being for Portugal and the west for Spain.
first European (since the Viking voyages) to reach the mainland of North America
first European to see the Pacific Ocean
sought to find gold and the Fountain of Youth in modern-day Florida and claimed Florida for Spain
destroyed the Aztec empire and won enormous riches
first to circumnavigate the world
led a disastrous expedition through the Gulf Coast region from which only four of the original 400 men returned
mounted three expeditions to the area of the St. Lawrence River (which he believed might be the hoped for Northwest Passage)
led a 600-man expedition penetrating as far west as Oklahoma and discovering the Mississippi River
led an expedition from Mexico, north across the Rio Grande and through New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas
first English child born in America
Instead of conquering England, the Spanish Armada was greatly damaged by storms and defeated by the English navy. The war between Spain and England ended in 1604 with England as the victor.
returned to find the settlement of Roanoke deserted
first permanent English settlement in North America
leads the settlement of Jamestown (keeps the colony from collapsing)
searched for a Northwest Passage
the first representative assembly in America
Native Americans killed 347 settlers
and his followers (dissidents of the Puritan faith) founded the colony of Providence
and a group of settlers founded Hartford
and her followers (dissidents of the Puritan faith) founded the colony of Portsmouth
are drawn up (the first written constitution in America)
Native Americans killed about 300 settlers
approved by George Calvert to protect the Catholic minority
provided a sort of half-way church membership for the children of members
rewarded to eight of the noblemen who helped Charles II regain the crown
explored the Mississippi Valley
a Wampanoag chief led a war to exterminate the whites
an uprising in which poor white farmers and poor black indentured servants united against Virginia’s Governor Berkley in an attempt to demand that Native Americans be driven out of Virginia
receives a grant of land in America from Charles II
a series of religious revivals
becomes a colony under General James Oglethorpe
also called the Seven Years' War
Britain claimed power to tax or make laws for the Americans "in all cases whatsoever"
British troops, acting somewhat in self-defense over a brawl with civilians, shot into a crowd and killed five Bostonians. Sons of Liberty named it "The Boston Massacre" to stir up anger against the British.
met in Philadelphia in order to deal with the difficulties the colonies were facing with Britain, placed George Washington in command of the New England army, and adopted a “Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking up Arms.”
the British forces under William Howe suffered tremendous losses as they attempted to take the Charleston peninsula from the colonists
the British (newly rallied after dispersing from Boston) defeat the Americans
created by Congress as a framework for national government
through the strategy of Daniel Morgan, the American sustained a decisive defeat of the British
Cornwallis (British general) is trapped by American and French forces and has no choice but to surrender
final agreement of peace between Britain and America
created organized territories south of the Great Lakes, west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River and, overall, established a precedent by which the US would expand westward across North America through the admittance of new states.
Treaty between Spain and the US granted Spain exclusive rights to navigate the Mississippi River for 30 years and also allowed American shipping in Spain’s European and West Indian seaports. The treaty was never ratified under the Articles of Confederation.
While various European powers, including Great Britain and revolutionary France, were at war, President Washington made a Proclamation of in 1793 in which he stated his intention for America to remain neutral and continue to trade with both Britain and France. (which changed with the Embargo Act)
was a rebellion led by disgruntled Pennsylvania farmers who refused to pay taxes on whiskey as outlined in Hamilton’s revenue program.
a scheme by which Georgia legislators were bribed in 1795 to sell most of the land now making up the state of Mississippi (then a part of Georgia's western claims) to four land companies for the sum of $500,000, far below its potential market value
established U.S. navigation rights on the Mississippi River, defined the borders of Spanish colonies, and implied an intention of friendship between the U.S. and Spain.
between the French and the Americans over the XYZ affair
America stopped trade with France and Britain while they were violating America's neutrality
was the first Supreme Court case in which the Court declared a state law to be unconstitutional.
longstanding unrest and resentment toward Britain lead to this war
was an event in the U.S. in December 1814 in which Federalist delegates from New England became so dissatisfied with the War of 1812 that they discussed secession of the New England states from the U.S.
were between the U.S. and pirates from city-states in North Africa; as a result of the wars, America gained free access to the Mediterranean Basin.
in order to slow inexpensive British goods from flooding into the U.S
in which the British agreed to stop keeping an armed fleet on the Great Lakes.
Spain agreed to surrender the remainder of the Florida territory to the U.S. and established the Pacific Ocean as the western boundary of Mexico
was an agreement passed in 1820 between anti-slavery and pro-slavery groups in the U.S. that was primarily aimed at regulating slavery in the U.S.’s western territories. (Maine was brought into the Union as a non-slave state and Missouri was brought in as a slave state.)
proclaimed the U.S.’s belief that European nations should not continue with any further colonization efforts in the Americas or interfere with any sovereign nations in the Americas, such as with U.S. or Mexico.
was a case in which the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution gives Congress power to regulate commerce among states, including interstate navigation.
strongly supported by Protestants, but strongly opposed by Catholics
Joseph Smith received the "sacred" writings in New York state and organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. They were not popular with neighbors (especially because of their practice of polygamy) and were forced to move about (first to Missouri, then to Illinois, and when their leader was killed, to Salt Lake, Utah).
Jackson supported the removal of all Indian tribes to west of the Mississippi River. This act provided for federal enforcement of that process.
This supreme court decision said that the Cherokee nation should be allowed to stay within the boundaries of Georgia. President Jackson refused to enforce the court's decision and this caused the Trail of Tears (thousands of Cherokees were forced to march West)
nation's first co-educational college
Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna's forces at San Jacinto and Anna was forced to let Texas go its way.
involved an American ship, the "Caroline", that had been carrying supplies to Canadian rebels. It was burned by Canadian loyalists who crossed the U.S. border in order to do so.
The Canada-Maine boundary in the area of the Aroostook Valley was disputed. British efforts to build a military road through the disputed area led to reaction by the Maine military in a bloodless confrontation.
the first state-supported school for women
Slaves took over an American ship, the "Creole" and sailed to British-owned Bahamas. Britain declined to return the escaped slaves.
President John Tyler approved this act that allowed settlers who had squatted on unsurveyed federal lands the first chance to buy the land once it was put on the market.
cleared up all of the problems between Britain and America (The Carolina Incident, The Creole Incident, and the Canada-Maine boundary)
was an informal revolt of American settlers aided by an army exploring party under the leadership of John Frémont. The settlers revolted against weak Mexican rule in California in order to declare California a free republic from Mexico.
a compromise solution between Britain and the US over Oregon. The U.S. was given part of it and Britain kept the rest.
In Seneca Falls, New York women met and made the "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions"
was a peace treaty that ended the Mexican-American War and provided for the Mexican Cession.
was created to compromise the various matters of contention between the North and South. For the North, California was admitted as a free state, the land in dispute between Texas and New Mexico would go to New Mexico, NM and UT territories slavery status would be decided by the state itself, and slave trade would be abolished in Washington DC. For the South, a tougher Fugitive Slave Law was enacted, the federal government paid Texas' 10 million dollar pre-annexation debt, Congress declared that it did not have jurisdiction over the interstate slave trade, and Congress promised not to abolish slavery itself in Washington DC.
acquisition of part of southwest New Mexico and southern Arizona, was signed by President Franklin Pierce in 1853; this purchase was to allow the U.S. to construct a transcontinental railroad.
to open it to American diplomacy and commerce
President Pierce succeeded in opening Canada to greater U.S. trade through this treaty.
Senator Stephen A. Douglas proposed that the land west of Missouri and Iowa should be organized into Kansas and Nebraska and that the Missouri Compromise should be ignored in this situation and that the issue of slavery should be decided by popular sovereignty in the new states. President Pierce and his Southern-dominated administration passed and signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act into law (even though Northern Democrats and a majority of the remaining Whigs opposed it).
a full-scale guerilla war between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery governments in Kansas. 200 people died in the months of guerilla war. The Sack of Lawrence was when pro-slavery people attacked the free-soil town of Lawrence (killing two, destroying homes, businesses, and printing presses). The Pottawatomie Massacre was when antislavery zealots killed and mutilated five unarmed pro-slavery men and boys in retaliation to the Sack of Lawrence.
Dred Scott was suing his owner for keeping him a slave even when they lived in free states. The court ruled that Scott had no standing to sue in federal court, that temporary residence in a free state did not make a slave free, and that the Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional all along because Congress did not have the authority to exclude slavery from any territory whatsoever. The Dred Scott case only made the sectional conflict worse. (when Buchanan had hoped it would resolve the slavery problem)
the country was struck by a short but severe depression
was proposed by the territory of Kansas protected the rights of slave-holders, allowed the existence of slavery in the proposed state, and allowed voters the option voting on a referendum to allow additional slaves into the territory.
The public was outraged that Mormons were allowed to practice polygamy. President Buchanan was forced to take Brigham Young's position as governor of the community and give it to someone else. The Mormons responded to this by blocking the passes through which the government's army would have to advance. It was resolved when the Mormons accepted the new governor and Buchanan issued a general pardon.
Debates over senatorial campaign between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas. Douglas won re-election to the Senate, but hurt himself for the coming presidential campaign. Lincoln, on the other hand, prepared himself for a good presidential future.
for treason and various other crimes in Virginia
surrenders to the Confederate army
Lincoln ordered General Irvin McDowell to advance on Richmond with his army. At a creek called Bull Run, near the town of Manassas Junction, Virginia, they met a Confederate force and the Union army was forced to retreat in confusion back to Washington.
offered large amounts of the federal government's land to states that would establish "agricultural and mechanical" colleges.
granted 160 acres of government land free of charge to any person who would farm it for at least five years.
declared free all slaves in areas still in rebellion
Congress voted a 100 percent pay raise for the president and a 50 percent increase for itself and made both retroactive two years back. Public outrage led to a Democratic victory and the law was repealed.
Hayes promised to show consideration for Southern interests, end Reconstruction, and withdraw the remaining federal troops from the South in exchange for Democratic acquiescence in his election.