Science Timeline for Matter


Stone Age

8000 BC - 6000 BC

Called stone age cause they used simple stone tools
Metals have not been discovered
First chemist learned how to start and control fire
Learned how to change a range of substances to their advantage
They could cook food, harden mud bricks to strengthen them, and make tougher tools
Ability to control fire led to production of glass and ceramic material

Copper/Bronze Age

6000 BC - 1000 BC

Chemist investigated only materials that had high value to humans
Materials were metals such as gold and copper
Gold highly valued cause properties, attractive colour, lustre, didnt tarnish
Softness made it easy to shape into detailed designs, form into wire and beat into sheets
Gold could not be weapons or tools
Copper valuable, make pots coins tools and jewellery
Chemist asking questions that led to an understanding of coppers properties and how the material could be controlled
Natural untreated copper breaks easily, in that state, not useful
Copper becomes heated, becomes useful cause its rolled into sheets or stretched into longwires

Around 1200 B.C-500 B.C, people in the middle east learned how to extract iron from rocks and turn iron into useful material. Iron age began.

Iron Age

1200 BC - 500 BC

Around 1200 B.C-500 B.C, people in the middle east learned how to extract iron from rocks and turn iron into useful material. Iron age began.
Learned how to combine iron with carbon to produce steel
metal wasnt the only form of matter people wanted to learn about


400 B.C - 350 B.C

Democritus they described a particle that cannot be broken down anymore as a "atomos"
Aristole said everything was made of earth, air fire and water.


Approx. 1400 - 1500

2000 years after democritus's time, experiments were carried out by alchemist. alchemy was a chemist involved with magic, trying to turn metals into gold. not interested in understanding the nature of matter
not real scientist, invented many useful tools we still use in labs though
practical discoveries such as materials.

Start of Modern Age

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1600

1500s, became more scientist like today (modern age).
greater interest in understanding the nature of matter and change than the alchemist had
robert boyle conducted experiement cause he was interested in pressure on gas. he was determiend to find composition of gases and other substances
became convinced matter was made up of tiny experimenets
believed tiny particles group up together to form individual substances

Naming Chemicals

1770 - 1800

developed a system for naming chemicals - 1770s antoine laurent lavoisier
significant to use same words to describe observations, made it easier to use same words to describe observations
lavoisier is called father of modern chemistry cause of his work

Matter was made of elements

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1850

1808, john dalton used obsevations from his experiements to develop own theory
suggested matter was made up of elements, first to define an eleement as a pure substance that contained no other substances
put forward the first modern theory of atomic strucutre too
stated all elements are made up of particles called atoms

Model of Atom

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1900

1897 thompson proposed raisin bun model of atom, described atoms as a positively charged sphere in which negatively charged electrons were embedded lie raisins in a bun
1904, hantaro nagaoka resembled atoms as a miniature solar system, large positively charge in center and negatively charged electrons orbited around this charge like planets