Causes & Effects of the Civil War

Events

Missouri Compromise

March 3, 1820

The Missouri Compromise was an attempt by the government to keep the peace between non-slave states and slave states. in 1819 Missouri requested for admission to the union as a slave state, this would upset the balance between slave states and free states. To avoid this chaos, Congress came up with a two part compromise, granting Missouri’s request but also admitting Maine as a free state.

Nat Turner's Rebellion

August 1831

Nat Turner was an educated slave that rose up against slave owners in the south. 56 blacks were accused and hung for the murder of 51 whites. The incident put fear in the heart of Southerners, ended the organized emancipation movement in that region, resulted in even harsher laws against slaves.

John C. Calhoun & Nullification

1832 - 1833

Compromise of 1850

January 29, 1850

Fugitive Slave Act

September 18, 1850

The Fugitive Slave Acts were laws that allowed the capture and return runaway slaves and inflict penalties on anyone who helped them escape. The passing of these laws resulted in many free blacks being captured and sold into slavery. This law meant that even if a slave managed to escape, they could now be kidnapped and taken back into slavery.

Kansas Nebraska Act

1852

The Kansas-Nebraska Act mandated that the citizens of a new state could decide by popular sovereignty whether the state should be a free or a slave state. This overturned the Missouri Compromise. This act caused more tension and conflict between pro-slavery and anti-slavery citizens, which lead to a violent period referred to as bloody kansas.

South Carolina Secedes

1860

Abraham Lincoln as President

March 4, 1861 - April 15, 1865

Sherman's March to the Sea

November 15, 1864 - December 21, 1864

Sherman's March to the Sea was a war tactic to enlist fear in the Confederacy. General Sherman march about $60,000 soldiers some 285 mile march from Atlanta to Savannah. As this army marched, they did not harm to towns unless they tried to fight, then they would steal food, livestock and burn houses and barns. The Yankees were “not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people,” Sherman explained; as a result, they needed to “make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war.”

Freedman's Bureau

March 3, 1865

13th Amendment

December 6,1865

“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” This amendment to the Constitution was the end of slavery in the United States of America. Lincoln thought that it was foolish to be in a war over slavery unless by the end slavery was abolished. He thought it necessary, that to make sure slavery was gone for good to make a constitutional amendment.

KKK Formed

December 24, 1865

The Ku Klux Klan was created to resist against white and black republican leaders. Its main goal was to re-establish white supremacy. They terrorised blacks in the south for years after the 13th amendment was ratified. after a period of declining numbers, white Protestant nativist groups revived the Klan in the early 20th century, burning crosses and staging rallies, parades and marches, to terrorize blacks even more. Membership of the KKK peaked in the 1920's when it reached over 4 million people nationwide. Civil rights movements of the 1960's cause a surge of KKK activity also.

Black Codes

1866

Civil Rights Act

April 9, 1866

14th Amendment

July 28, 1868

The 14th amendment basically states that no one can be discriminated against by the law. A few of the types of discriminations mentions are racial, reproductive rights, gender, and more. This amendment ensures that states cannot prevent freed slaves from gaining citizenship.

15th Amendment

March 30, 1870

The 15th amendment allowed african americans the right to vote. it states that no American citizens can be denied the right to vote on account of race, color, or past servitude. One day after it was ratified, Thomas Peterson of New Jersey, became the first black person to vote under the 15th Amendment.