Osman built a small Muslim state in Anatolia between 1300 and 1326
Osman was the most successful ghazi
His successors expanded the state my conquering others, buying land, and forming alliances
Zheng He was a chinese naval explorer during the Ming dynasty who sailed along most of the coast of Asia, Japan, and half way down the east coast of Africa before his death; he is credited with cultural diffusion and with possibly exploring the Americas before Columbus; After his death, the Ming destroyed his ships and isolated declaring that he had not found them anything that that justified the cost of more voyages (an example of ethnocentrism)
Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer and navigator. He is important because he is supposedly said to be the first person to discover the New World that is now called America/ the Americas. Because of him, his explorations paved the way for the colonization and explorations of these areas.
-He was 11 years old when he inherits a kingdom
- He was important because he was a brilliant General
- Builds an Army
- Conquers India, lays foundation for Mughal Empire
inherits power at 3 years old
@ 16 he becomes in charge
The good year = 1546 - 1560
marries Anatasia Romanon
- blames Russian land owners (Boyars) for her death
Catherine the Great was the ruler of Russia from 1762-1796.
She ruled with absolute authority.
-She sought to Reform Russia
-She formed a commission to review Russia's laws
-She proposed reforms based on the ideas of Montesquieu and Beccaria
-She recommended allowing religion toleration, and abolishing torture and capital punishment
---->But in the end she failed to accomplish these goals- her commission never set out to complete and enforce them
-She gave nobles absolute power over the Serfs and Russian serfs lost their freedom
-Catherine the Great sought to access the Black Sea
-She sent her amy to battle the Ottoman Turks
-They were victorious the second war
-They gained control of the northern shore of the Black Sea
-Under her rule, they also gained the right to send ships through the Ottoman controlled straits
-She also expanded the empire westward into Poland and helped Russia to become an international power
Louis- Phillipe becomes king after King Charles X leaves France
He is removed from power by a French mob
MONARCHY IS NOW REPLACED WITH A REPUBLIC
Teodor I takes over
- Teodor I was incompetent can't produce heir
Renaissance= rebirth (revival of art and learning in this case)
The goal was to bring back the culture of classical Greece and Rome to Italy
-It started in northern Italy
-The Bubonic Plague brings in the Renaissance
3 REASONS WHY THE RENAISSANCE STARTED IN ITALY
-A wealthy merchant class
-Merchants dominated politics
-Merchants were "self made"
-Merchants do not inherit social rank- meaning that they work hard and are very smart in order to reach their high ranks
-Merchants run the state like a dictator, but make it look like a democracy
-MEDICI= the main merchant family
-Classical heritage of Greece and Rome
-Thriving Cities (urban)
-People are able to easily and quickly exchange ideas
-Classics led to Humanism
-Humanism = an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements
-Humanist influenced artist and architects to carry on classical traditions
-Humanities ---> history, literature, and philosophy
Worldly Pleasures was becoming approved
-THE BASIC SPIRIT OF THE RENAISSANCE SOCIETY WAS SECULAR
-Worldly pleasures ----> enjoying life without offending God
-Patrons of the Arts became important
-Spending money on/for the arts
-GREAT EMPHASIS PLACED ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN POTENTIAL
100 Years War stops the Renaissance from spreading
- the artist leave Italy, and head to northern Europe... did not go to France
A plague that struck across Europe
Killed up to 60% of the population
Effects brought economic changes - comes from the few workers and laborers now available
Merchants had few opportunities with expanding businesses so they looked to pursue the arts
-Johann Gutenberg is a craftsman who created the printing press
-The printing press was important because it allowed booked to be produced quickly and cheaply. It also helped spread ideas and inventions around to more people.
Considered a true ¨Renaissance Man¨
Created the Mona Lisa
Created the Last Supper
He was a painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist
Ivan the Great
- Conquerers territory around Moscow
- liberated Russia from Moscow
- Centrialized Russian government
- Adds more territory
- increases ruler's power
A Renaissance Man
Very well known for the dome of St.Peter's, the paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the statue of David
The Treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement between Spain and Portugal that aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered. Spain was granted a much larger portion of land. Portugal was only given the possession of Brazil.
The Prince is important because it examined the imperfect conduct of human beings.
It is a sort of political guidebook
The Prince examines how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies.
The Reformation was a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the Pope's authority
- Pretty much people moving away from the Catholic Church and moving toward other religious reforms ( for the most part Protestantism)
-------->Reasons why the Reformation occurred
-The Reformation was the movement for religious reform that was (mostly) sparked by the spread 95 Theses (which was created by Martin Luther) .
-The Reformation was also sparked by the weakening of the Catholic Church authority
-"The Renaissance emphasis on the secular and the individual challenged Church authority."
-The printing press made it easy to spread secular ideas
- Rulers began to resent and challenge the political power the Church had
-Merchants didn't like paying church taxes
-Critics began to say that the Church's leaders were corrupt
-Many of Luther's ideas had been spread and put into practice although Catholic officials banned and banned as an outlaw and heretic
-The Lutherans, followers of Martin Luther's teachers, formed.
- Protestantism also formed
-England become protestant
In 1517, Martin Luther wrote the 95 Theses and posted them onto the door of a church
The 95 Theses was a response to/opposing Friar Johann Tezel's tactics of selling indulgences in order to rebuild St.Peter's Cathedral in Rome.
The 95 Theses was a group of formal statements attacking the "pardon merchants".
The book was printed in mass copies and soon spread all over
Because of Luther writing this book, it sparked the beginning of the Reformation
-The Council of Trent was a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III (and another pope) to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers
-Wanted to reform the Catholic Church which had begun to become corrupt ( example --- main problem---> Indulgences)
-Step Pope Paul III took
1) he directed a council or cardinals to look into indulgences being sold, as well as other "abuses in the church".
2)Approved of the Jesuit order
3)Used the Inquisition to find out heresy in papal territory
4)He called a group/council of church leaders to meet in Trent
This council set laws/rules in Trent that were made to fix the problem found in the Catholic Church
This reformation began with the Council of Trent
The Catholic/Counter Reformation- The Catholic Reformation was the movement where the Catholics sought to make a response/retaliation to the Protestant Reformation. This is important because its goal was to help spread Catholicism by converting non religious people to Catholicism and show that the corruption in the Catholic Church was being corrected. This would (hopefully) in turn bring people back to Catholicism and way from Protestantism.
-The Scientific Revolution was a new way of thinking.
-In the 1500s, when the revolution was beginning, ideas of ancients were challenged
-The Scientific Revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world
- It focused upon careful observations and questioned accepted beliefs
A combination of discoveries leads to the Scientific Revolution
The discoveries that lead to the Scientific Revolution
- Explorations and discoveries began to influence European thought
-Invention of Printing Press spreads this thought
-Observations of the world around them did not match conventional beliefs
During the Scientific Revolution, different methods, theories,facts, and scientific instruments were discovered and created.
---->Some important figures during this time period were:
He recognizes that military is his power
"On May 14, 1607, a group of roughly 100 members of a joint venture called the Virginia Company founded the first permanent English settlement in North America on the banks of the James River" - History.com
-Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
-Jamestown was able to become allies/friendly with the Native Americans
-They were able to do this by having John Rolfe make peace with them by marrying the tribe’s leader daughter, Pocahontas.
-This alliance was an advantage because it allowed the people of Jamestown to not have to worry about war with the natives.
-It also gave them the ability to rely on the Natives during a time of need.
Jamestown was also able to succeed because they were planting tobacco seeds, which would then go to England for a profit. Then they were able to build their colony with the money they received.
Their leader, John Rolf, implemented rules that benefited everyone and allow the colony to continue to succeed
- He epands Mughal Empire to its greatest size
He was a "master at military strategy and an aggressive empire builder. He oppressed people, and outraged Hindus through decisions that were against them. People rebelled against him, levied oppressive taxes, stretched kingdom too far and drained resources. 2 million people died in famine under him."
-Arcangel was the only port
- was frozen for half of the year
needs new port
starts 21 year war with Sweeden
-gains port = st. petersburg
Agricultural revolution paves the way
- experimented with ways to produce more
- Higher Crop Volume = more money
John Kay invents flying shuttle
-It spurs change in industrialization and textile industry.
-It doubled the work a weaver can do.
-Robert Clive led East India Company against Indian forces at the Battle of Plassey
-His victory allowed the British East India Company to rule India for the next 100 years
-British expand their control over India
-The East India Company grows over time
-British government regulated East Indian COmpany
-The company had its own army
-Led by British officers and staffed by Sepoys
This colonization/rule of India for the British proved to be very valuable
India was the------>“Jewel in the Crown”
-Britain treasured Indian for its potential
- India's population of 300 million
-Potential market for British (a lot of people to buy their goods and products)
-Considered india to be the “jewel in the crown” since it was Britain's most valuable colony
-The Industrial Revolution was a conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to market.
-The Industrial Revolution affected every part of life in Great Britain-- eventually makes life better although it initially makes life worse
-By the 1800s, people could earn more money working in a factory than working on a farm.
-Money allowed them to heat their homes with coal, buy better clothing, and eat beef.
-Cities swelled, population dramatically increased
-This shift in population was caused by factories and their locations in centralized areas.
-This ultimately caused Urbanization.
- Urbanization is the city building and the movement of people to cities
Changes the textile industry
James Hargreaves created it
Spinning wheel ----> aka spinning jenny
The National Assembly creates the new constitution
-It is a limited constitutional monarchy
-Creates a new legislative body, the Legislative Assembly
-They had the power to create laws and declare war but the king still enforced laws
But although the new constitution was created, food shortages and government debt still remained
The Legislative Assembly splits into three groups: Radicals, Moderates, and Conservatives
The guillotine was created by Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotine
-The guillotine was efficient, humane, and democratic
-Before the guillotine, French criminals had to suffer through horrible punishments in public places
-Although it still attracted large crowds to watch the public punishment, some people were not pleased with how quick the process was
The Reign of Terror was the time period where Maximilian Robespierre ruled as a dictator.
-In July 1793, Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety.
-The Committee of Public Safety's chief task was to protect the Revolution from its enemies
-So as Robespierre ruled, he ordered/caused for the committee to try and execute many people that he considered "enemies".
- This use of terror was justified in Robespierre mind, because it suggested that it enabled French citizens to remain true t the ideals of the Revolution
-Around 85 % of the mass amount of people that were killed during The Reign of Terror were peasants or members of the urban poor or middle class
-In July 179, members of the National Convention turned on Robespierre and he was arrested and sent to execution by the guillotine
-The discovery of the Rosetta Stone was an important victory for Napoleon Bonaparte.
-The Rosetta Stone was important, because the key to translating the hieroglyphics on the pyramids.
The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval battle in 1805 off the coast of Spain.
----> At this battle Nelson, leads British forces to a naval victory and beats Napoleon and the French once again.
The two major results of Napoleon’s defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar were:
1. British navy stays the most powerful for the next 100 years
2. Napoleon abandons plans to invade England
Also the lose at this battle, causes for Napoleon to no longer try to invade places over water since he fears defeat from Horatio Nelson…
-Napoleon attention was then turned east to Russia
In November 1806, Napoleon created a blockade. This blockade closed all of the ports in order to prevent Great Britain from having any access to other European Nations.
-The goal of this blockade was to make Europe more self sufficient and to completely crush Great Britain’s trade with Europe.
-But The Continental System failed and wasn't successful
The British navy was still better and the French's control was not tight enough. Smugglers were able to bring in brought goods into Europe from Great Britain
-France sent a force through Spain and into Portugal
-Spain didn’t like these French troops in their territory
So in retaliation, Spain uses guerilla warfare
-Low risk combat
Napoleon can’t engage in open battle and an estimated 300,00 French die
As a result from this was nationalism spreads.
The United States possessed the same abilities, resources, and stability for an industrial revolution.
-In the War of 1812, G.B. blockaded the U.S. and prevented it from trading with other countries since they didn't want them to industrialize
-As a result the U.S. developed its own industry and learned how to become self sufficient
The Opium War conflict between Britain and China , lasting from 1839 to 1842 , over Britain's opium trade in China
- battles took place mostly at sea
- Britain was more advanced
-Britain won the war , Chinese were defeated
-Peace treaty, Treaty of Nanjing, ended the war
--Each generation of Russian czars launched a war on the Ottomans to gain a warm weather port
-The Crimean War was the war between the Russians and Ottomans
-The Crimean War was the first war in which women establish their position as army nurses
-Great Britain, France, and the Ottoman Empire defeat Russia
-The war revealed the true weakness of the Ottoman Empire- they only won because of the help of their allies (France, Great Britain, and Russia all notice this)
-Since Russia lost the war,they swore to help any groups that wanted independence from the Ottoman Empire.. They supplied them with weapons, etc.
-Russia eventually help the Balkans gain their independence
-Ottoman loses control of Romania, Montenegro Cyrus, Bosnia, and Herzegovina + some land in Africa
-The Sepoy Mutiny was a rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India.
-The war was caused from the rumor that cartridges of their new Enfield riles were greased with beef and pork.
-And in order to use the cartridges, soldiers had to bite off the ends
- In both religions it is taboo to eat/consume eat pork or cow
- Pork was a taboo for the Muslims
-The cow was a taboo for the Hindus
-They were jailed for refusing to use the cartridges and so they ended up rebelling. This was the start of the Sepoy Mutiny
The East India Company/the British won the war due to them being united and having some sort of strong leadership, which the Indians did not have.
-Europe realizes that Africa is up for grabs, but they don't want to fight each other over the land.
-The Berlin Conference was a conference where 14 European countries came together in order to discuss the division of Africa.
The conference establishes rules for colonization of Africa
1) If somebody already owns the land, leave it alone
2) You must be able to control the land
This conference caused a lot of conflict, because the European nations divided Africa without any thought about how African ethnic or linguistic groups would be distributed. This ultimately caused years of conflict (war, genocide, etc..) amongst of the many different groups of Africans that were affected by the division.
The McKinley Tariff Act eliminated all tariffs on sugar. This tariff was significant because it undercut Hawaii’s sugar profits and made the Republic suffer
The Russo-Japanese War was the war that started in February 1904. Japan launched a sneak attack on the Russian fleet. Because of this attack, most of the Russian fleet is destroyed and in 1905, Russia and Japan sign the Treaty of Portsmouth. This treaty gave Japan the captured territories.
This war also significant, because Russia had to withdraw from Manchuria and had to stay out of Korea. It also showed that Japan was powerful/clever too.
World War was the first world war between the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente
Rivalry between Europe’s great powers had developed
- Germany ,Austria-Hungary ,Great Britain ,Russia ,Italy ,France
-The increasing rivalry among European nation stemmed from several sources
1) Competition for resources
2) Competition for markets
3) Territorial disputes
-The war really sparks when Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were visiting Bosnia and were assassinated at point blank range by Serbian assassins... As a result from this, Austria declares war on Serbia -- July 28, 1814
Then the Great War begins
- First Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
-Then Germany declares war on Russia and France
- And Great Britain declares war on Germany
-The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Italy later switched)
-The Triple Entente consisted of France, Great Britain, and Russia (and Serbia)
During the war millions of people were killed and new kinds of weaponry and machinery were developed
- Poison Gas
In the end the Tripe Entente/Allies win the war
300,000 men and women drafted into the army.
This is important because it significantly increases France's army to now around 800,000 soldiers