Osman, the most successful ghazi creates the Ottoman Empire.
Rulers of the Ottoman Empire:
-Timur the Lame
After the Bubonic Plague, the people who survived wanted to celebrate life and human spirit. The Renaissance brought humanism and humanism.
Bubonic Plague was a disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia Petis which circulates among wild rodents. This disease killed 50 million people, and is what started the Renaissance period.
This Chinese dynasty conquer the Mongol and take control over the empire.
The Ming leaders:
-Conquers territory around Moscow
-Liberated Russia from Mongols
-Centralized Russian Government
Mughal empire is started by Babur.
Rulers of empire:
The emergence of modern science which developed mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, etc.
The Reformation was a religious movement in the 16th century. It was the European's search for stability, religious unity destroyed.
-Solidifies his power at 16
-"The Good Years"- 1546-1560
-"The Bad Years"- 1560-1584
A movement to stop the spread of Protestantism and regain the power of the Catholic church.
Charles V agrees to Peace of Augsburg, which was an agreement to allow the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire to choose the religion they want to practice.
Philip II was a religious and strict ruler. His reign began the Golden Age.
The period in which Queen Elizabeth ruled England.
The lost colony.
Theory: When John White arrived back to the Roanoke settlement after his long expedition, he found that the colonists were gone. The houses were taken down, a husk remained, boats and cannons gone, "CROATOAN', (the native settlement) was carved on a white fence, and 'CRO' was scratched on a tree. What I believe happened is that the tribe were in desperate measures. They had diseases that they developed from the ship (on their way to Roanoke), and they had low water and food supplies. There was a settlement close by called Croatoan. They carved that on a tree and fence to state that that is where they'll be and that they needed protection from that tribe. Protection from what? The Spaniards. The Spaniards were heading North towards Roanoke, and they reached the island, attacking the settlement. This explains why the boats and cannons were gone; however, the bodies were thrown underwater and because of erosion, the bodies weren't found. However, some colonists went a separate direction before the Spaniards could make it. They went to find help, and this explains the Lumbee Connection (A tribe native to North Carolina, and their history links to Roanoke settlers).
The colony was abandoned, and the Croatoan tribe arrived at their settlement, taking down their houses.
Tokogawa Ieyasu creates the Tokogawa Shogunate, which is a gov't like the Ming Dynasty.
First permanent settlement in North America
The last imperial dynasty to rule Russia. The Romanov's reign sparked Russia's major European power.
Japan shifts to policy of isolation when Tokogawa's son takes control. They leave one port open for trade, and only the Dutch and Chinese can trade there.
A conflict over religion and territory and for power among European families weakened.
Charles I becomes king of England and Scotland from 1625-1649. His reign leads to the English Civil War because of his attempt to impose England's religion on Scotland.
-Royalists or Cavaliers vs. Parliament
-General Oliver Cronnell captures King Charles
The Qing dynasty expands China to its largest size and lowers taxes
-Starts 21 year war with Sweden for their port. He gains the port, which is now St. Petersburg.
A conflict where a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France.
A conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to the market.
-French and English want control of Ohio River Valley
-Colonists side with the English
-Native Americans side with the French.
-English and colonists win French-Indian war.
-Leads to a fight for independence
During Louis XVI reign:
- Great unrest within France
-Bad harvest, high taxes, high prices
Leads to revolution
-Ends monarchy and wars
-Napoleon Bonaparte's reign begins
Napoleon Bonaparte, French military leader and emperor. He conquered most of Europe, and hoped to control and create a world empire.
Policy opposing European colonialism in the Americas.
A war between China and Britain due to Britain's refusal to stop trading opium. Britain gains Hong Kong and China and allows foreign citizens extraterritorial rights.
A revolt against Manchu Dynasty. 20-40 million dead; however, it led to the self-strengthening movement (encouraged the creation of factories to manufacture).
A war between Russians and the Ottomans over the warm weather port. The Ottomans won the war, and it revealed the Ottoman Empire's military weakness.
An agreement between the U.S and Japan to open Japan's doors to the Western World. It marked the end of Japan's seclusion.
A revolt of the Sepoy troops in British India.
The Berlin conference was a meeting 14 European nations to lay down rules for the division of Africa. They agreed that any European country could claim land in Africa.
War between China and Japan over influence of Korea. Japan has its first colony (Taiwan) and their victory changes the balance of power.
War between Spain and the U.S. Cuba gains independence.
Diamonds and gold in Southern Africa in the 1860s-1880s lured "outsiders" but the Boers started a rebellion to keep them from gaining political rights. The rebellion fails, and the Boer an British war begins. Ultimately, the British win and the Union of South Africa was controlled by the British.
An anti-imperialist movement. Boxers were defeated and nationalism emerged in China.
War between Japan and Russia. Most of Russian fleet was destroyed, and they had to withdraw.
A war that began with the Triple Alliance (Germany,Austria-Hungary, and Italy) and the Triple Ententre (Great Britain, France, and Russia) when Austria declared war on Serbia. The war later spread and then became a world war