teacher and philosopher
very high moral standards
religious wars between
Italian merchants control european trade
Can only travel in water in the direction of the wind blowing
Major artists were Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Human potential was a major idea during this time. It was humans being the best they can be. 100 years war stops renaissance from spreading. France attacks Italy causing artists to run.
Turks move into Byzantium. Turks view themselves as ghazis, or warriors for Islam. They formed militaristic societies. Emir was their word for ruler or chief. They followed a strict Islamic code. Osman-most powerful ghazi. Ottomans were followers of Osman/Othman. The Ottomans were militarily successful. They replaced horses and archeres with musketmen, this is how they won all their battles. They also used cannons in war. Ottomans conquer Byzantium. Improves peasants lives, muslim men must fight in army, and non-muslim men don't have to fight but you have to pay a tax.
Memhed II- conqueres constantinople, opens constantinople to other religions, becomes istanbul.
Suleyman the lawgiver- rules for 45 years, controls eastern med and northern africa
- Bubonic Plague: brought the renaissance, 60% of Europe got it.
Europe divided between
Byzantine style art, Realism- paining realistic pictures as they are.
leads army against Mongolians
returns china to confucian beliefs
burns Baghdad down, focuses his attention on china (has silk which is most important), and temporarily halts ottoman expansion west.
Stops the renaissance from spreading
France attacks Italy, Artists don't want to fight in the war so they run.
This spreads the renaissance to Northern Europe (except France)
Challenges gender roles
1st woman to make money writing
During the renaissance, only men were allowed to "create" art and women were supposed to inspire it.
kicks mongols out of china
china is reformed
Admiral of voyages
Blacksmith, printer, and publisher
Created the printing press, which sped up printing books by 500 times the speed
moves to Beijing, an explorer
starts 1 of 7 voyages
People became patrons of the arts when they supported renaissance artists.
the artists had painted portraits of their patrons
-This way they wealthy's way of establishing their importance
Speeds up book printing process by 500 times. Johannas Gutenburg created it
Conquers Constantinople. this becomes Istanbul and he opens it up to new religions, which spread ideas
Uses triangle sails
sailed around the tip of Africa
was the first to do this
Italian artist, painter, sculpture, musician. He created some of the most valuable works of art. led way for future art. He was a big renaissance man.
Travels to east coast of new world
realizes it is not Asia
conquers territory around moscow
liberated russia from mongols
centralized russian territory
europeans arrive for the first time
Daimyo- warrior chief -->
employ samurai, warriors
sails all the way around africa and arrives in India
makes 60 times the amount that the trip cost
wants to be a good christian
hears about indulgences ---> priest "erasing" sins
Writes and posts the "95 theses"
3 main teachings
1. salvation only through god
2. church showed focus on bible
3. all people with faith are equal
Pope Leo X excommunicates
Starts Mughal empire
builds an army
King of england
Starts the split of power of catholic church in England
columbus sails to shores of "New World"
believed he landed in India
landed in America
Emperor of Holy roman empire
declares Martin Luther Heretic
creates Peace of Augsburg
Cabral reaches Brazil and claims it for Portugal
doesn't find gold
finds and expands sugar cane production
German map maker names America after Amerigo Vespucci
loses nearly everything
Humanism became a major idea. The printing press was one of the most important inventions. This sped up the printing process by 500 times faster. For economic problems, monarchs were jealous of church money. People hated church taxes. In Political, monarchs didn't like church power. pope was viewed as foreign leader. Church was viewed as corrupt. Indulgences were a huge issue. Martin Luther hears about indulgences and write "The 95 Theses." Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther. Martin Luther's three main teachings were
1.) salvation only through god
2.) church should focus on bible
3.) All people with faith are equal
Charles V (emperor of holy roman empire) declares ML heretic. Peasants revolt, Peace of Augsburg. Act of supremacy: king of England is head of church. creates unchecked power and unchecked divine power. John Calvin, a follower of Martin Luther, believes in predestination. This is the idea that you are already born either saved or damned by god. You can't do anything to change this. Your salvation is already determined.
Pins the 95 theses on the church wall. this fires up the reformation
lands in Aztec territory
wants gold and silver
has army of 600 men
Aztec offers half of what they have but Cortes denies and takes all of it
sultan of the ottoman empire. led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade and Rhodes as well as most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529
at 16 ivan solidifies his power
marreis Anastasia Romanon
secret police kill whoever Ivan says to kill
kills oldest son
200 soldiers V.S. Inca (30,000)
conquers incan empire
Declares king of England is head of church
gives unchecked power and unchecked divine power
empire strikes back
recognizes military is key
uses heavy artillery against enemies
treats conquered people well
continues islamic tradition of religious freedom
creates granulated tax
eliminates non-muslim tax
high ranking catholic church members.
1.) church interpretations of Bible are final
2.) church and bible are equally powerful
3.) Salvation is possible through faith and work
4.) Indulgences are banned
1.) Christian schools in Europe
2.) Stop the spread of protestantism
3.) convert non-muslims
This connects to the reformation because it was the Catholic church trying to regain their power that was lost in the reformation.
Geocentric Theory ---> earth is in the middle of the universe
believed god put earth in the center of the universe
Heliocentric theory- sun in the center of the universe
Copernicus- came up with this theory
Galileo- Italian scientist, invented telescope, put on trial by church, on house arrest until death
declared by Charles V
any and every ruler decides religion for his/her kingdom
this expanded and created new religions
Renaissance in England. William Shakespeare is a major person during this time. He created millions of plays that are still used today. He talked about human weaknesses/flaws. Believed literature and art were important.
The Elizabethan Era connects to the Catholic reformation because it was trying to spread protestantism while Mary, Queen of Scotts was trying to force catholicism into England playing a part into going against the catholic reformation.
most famous playwrite. wrote thousands of plays and created hundreds of words that are still used today.
successfully uses muskets in battle
dreams of unifying japan but never does
commits seppuku in 1582
defeats the ottoman empire
loses control of netherlands
declares himself king of portugal
gains africa from portugal colonies
by 1590, controls most of japan
dies in 1598
takes over after Ivan the terrible
incompetent, can't produce heir
115 english settlers arrive in roanoke. John White- governor of Roanoke, sails back to queen Elizabeth to tell her how its going. Forced to fight in was with spain. He stays for 3 years when he was only supposed to be gone for 6 months. Returns to roanoke in 1590. No on is there, everyone left. clothes still hanging on line, butter still churning.
2 things are left in writing
1. "Croatoan" carved into fence post.
2. "Cro" stretched into tree trunk.
oldest unsolved mystery in America
obsessed with his wife
builds the Taj Mahal for her
not a good ruler
people are starving
unifies all of japan
moves capital to Edo --> now called Tokyo
forces daimyo families to live in Edo
japanese feudal system
like ming dynasty
Dutch move to Indonesia
create rigid class system
British take Malayan Peninsula
establish major port in Singapore
lets his wife Nur rule
has son, Kushrau, who rebels against him
First permanent English settlement in North America.
-constant wars/raids by Native Americans.
1609-1610 was know as the "Starving Time"
in 1610- Spring of 1610 happened, the people were ready to leave and go back home. While getting ready to leave 2 english ships arrive.
1st ship was John Rolf
2nd ship was tobacco
Tobacco was controlled by Spain and you could be killed if you were seen growing it. First african americans are brought in to farm the tobacco. Rolf goes and meets with Chief Powhatan and he wants to make peace with the natives. Rolf marries Pocahontas. Rolf was first captured by the Natives and Pocahontas convinces to set him free in 1607. She is only 14/15 when married. Jamestown was built on tobacco.
Anastasia's great nephew takes over
ends due to russian revolution
leaves nagasaki port open
kills older brothers
expands empire to its largest size
enforces strict islamic rule
brings back non-muslim tax
theory of motion
laws of gravity
Manchus/Manchurians conquer china
Gave smart people government jobs
only has one port (Arc angel)
frozen half of the year
starts 21 year war with sweden
gains port, St. Petersburg
higher crop volume=more money
tenant farming (also sharecropping) moved into farms and kicked small farmers out.
Jethro Toll- invented seed drill in 1701, higher crop yields.
rotated crops to keep nutrients in soil
between 1700-1788, average sheep size went from 18 pounds to 50 pounds
increase in food supply= increase in population
why Industrial Revolution began in England?
- large population of workers
- extensive natural resources
industrialization required extensive resources and goods
- water power and coal
- iron ore
inventions: 1733- flying shuttle, 1764- spinning jenny, 1769- water frame, 1779- spinning wheel, 1787- power loom
1830- railroad from Liverpool to Manchester created.
-Started in Great Britain
machines changed people's way of life as well as their methods of manufacture. About the time of the American Revolution, the people of England began to use machines to make cloth and steam engines to run the machines.
-They had the resources necessary
Started rotating crops
- railroad become relevant
-created agricultural revolution
- Spain and Austria failed to industrialize
- Asia and Africa never industrialized
Paved way for wealthy land owners to enclose their property
experimented with ways to produce more
-higher crop volume=more money
Tenant farming was invented, which was basically sharecropping.
Rotating crops would allow the ground to keep the nutrients.
- Also introduced selective breeding.
china reaches its largest size
strict trade laws for foreigners
freed america from Britain
became own country
signed by T.J., John Hancock
Taxes are high, high costs, and crop failure. France is divided into 3 estates. 1st estate is roman catholic clergy, they pay 2% taxes. 2nd estate is nobles and pay 0% taxes. 3rd Estate is everyone else, they make up 97% of the population of France, pays 50% taxes. Louis XVI doubles debt. he funds american revolution. 3rd estate wants to call for a vote to get 2nd estate to pay taxes. Tennis court treaty created. National assembly creates Declaration of man and the citizen. (basically declaration of independence) Delcares war on Prussia and Austria. King louis XVI is killed.
pop increases more than food supply. wars and epidemics occurred to kill extra people
closes all ports to prevent Great Britain to access any european nations
Napoleon finds out that Portugal isn't closing their ports
Spain doesn't want french troops in their territory
Spain uses guerrilla warfare
Alexander I - leader of Russia
Alexander I and Napoleon are allies
Alex refuses to stop selling to GB
Both want poland
Napoleon invades Russia
Alexander uses scorched earth policy
napoleon enters moscow
- napoleon sees it is burned and retreats back to France
leaves during winter, thousand die
after failed invasion of Russia, Russia, Prussia, Britain, Austria, and Sweden all declare war on France
banished to Elba
Louis XVIII is in power
napoleon escapes Elba
Napoleon attacks but is defeated
After Napoleon, Europe had a new goal: collective security and stability. European countries met in Vienna for 8 months.
john Stewart questions unregulated capitalism. wished to help working people w/ politics that would lead to more equal division of profits. Robert Owen tried to improve workers conditions by renting houses at low costs and didn't allow children under 10 to work in factories
Britain gained control of Nigeria
Rebellions against foreign intervention
Controlled palm-oil trade
Berlin Conference gave Britain control of Niger river delta