World history timeline



551 BCE - 479 BCE

teacher and philosopher
golden rule
very high moral standards

the crusades

1095 - 1291

religious wars between
cultural diffusion
Italian merchants control european trade
Can only travel in water in the direction of the wind blowing


1300 - 1600

Major artists were Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Human potential was a major idea during this time. It was humans being the best they can be. 100 years war stops renaissance from spreading. France attacks Italy causing artists to run.

Ottoman Empire

1300 - 1600

Turks move into Byzantium. Turks view themselves as ghazis, or warriors for Islam. They formed militaristic societies. Emir was their word for ruler or chief. They followed a strict Islamic code. Osman-most powerful ghazi. Ottomans were followers of Osman/Othman. The Ottomans were militarily successful. They replaced horses and archeres with musketmen, this is how they won all their battles. They also used cannons in war. Ottomans conquer Byzantium. Improves peasants lives, muslim men must fight in army, and non-muslim men don't have to fight but you have to pay a tax.

Powerful Sultans-
Memhed II- conqueres constantinople, opens constantinople to other religions, becomes istanbul.

Suleyman the lawgiver- rules for 45 years, controls eastern med and northern africa

pre renaissance

1301 - 1601

-Classical era
-Dark Ages
- Bubonic Plague: brought the renaissance, 60% of Europe got it.
Europe divided between
1. plague
2. war
3. church
Byzantine style art, Realism- paining realistic pictures as they are.


1328 - 1398

leads army against Mongolians
reforms china
lands returned
returns china to confucian beliefs

timur the lame

1336 - 1405

burns Baghdad down, focuses his attention on china (has silk which is most important), and temporarily halts ottoman expansion west.

100 years war

1337 - 1453

Stops the renaissance from spreading
France attacks Italy, Artists don't want to fight in the war so they run.
This spreads the renaissance to Northern Europe (except France)

Christine de Pisan

1364 - 1430

Challenges gender roles
1st woman to make money writing
During the renaissance, only men were allowed to "create" art and women were supposed to inspire it.

Ming dynasty

1368 - 1644

kicks mongols out of china
china is reformed

Zheng He

1371 - 1433

Admiral of voyages

Johannes Gutenberg

1398 - 1468

Blacksmith, printer, and publisher
Created the printing press, which sped up printing books by 500 times the speed


1398 - 1424

moves to Beijing, an explorer
starts 1 of 7 voyages

patrons of the arts

1400 - 1600

People became patrons of the arts when they supported renaissance artists.
the artists had painted portraits of their patrons
-This way they wealthy's way of establishing their importance

china returns to isolation


printing press


Speeds up book printing process by 500 times. Johannas Gutenburg created it

mehmed the conqueror

1444 - 1481

Conquers Constantinople. this becomes Istanbul and he opens it up to new religions, which spread ideas

bartolomeu dias

1450 - 1500

Uses triangle sails
sailed around the tip of Africa
was the first to do this

leonardo da vinci

1452 - 1519

Italian artist, painter, sculpture, musician. He created some of the most valuable works of art. led way for future art. He was a big renaissance man.

Amerigo Vespucci

1454 - 1512

Travels to east coast of new world
realizes it is not Asia

Ivan III

1462 - 1505

conquers territory around moscow
liberated russia from mongols
centralized russian territory


1467 - 1568

warring period
europeans arrive for the first time
muskets arrive
Daimyo- warrior chief -->
employ samurai, warriors

Pasco de gama

1469 - 1524

sails all the way around africa and arrives in India
makes 60 times the amount that the trip cost

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

wants to be a good christian
hears about indulgences ---> priest "erasing" sins
Writes and posts the "95 theses"
3 main teachings
1. salvation only through god
2. church showed focus on bible
3. all people with faith are equal
Pope Leo X excommunicates


1483 - 1530

Starts Mughal empire
builds an army
conquers india
brilliant general

Henry VIII

1491 - 1547

King of england
Starts the split of power of catholic church in England

Columbus' first voyage


columbus sails to shores of "New World"
believed he landed in India
landed in America

Charles V

1500 - 1558

Emperor of Holy roman empire
declares Martin Luther Heretic
creates Peace of Augsburg

cabral reaches brazil


Cabral reaches Brazil and claims it for Portugal
doesn't find gold
finds and expands sugar cane production

America is named after Amerigo


German map maker names America after Amerigo Vespucci


1508 - 1556

empire declines
loses nearly everything


1517 - 1648

Humanism became a major idea. The printing press was one of the most important inventions. This sped up the printing process by 500 times faster. For economic problems, monarchs were jealous of church money. People hated church taxes. In Political, monarchs didn't like church power. pope was viewed as foreign leader. Church was viewed as corrupt. Indulgences were a huge issue. Martin Luther hears about indulgences and write "The 95 Theses." Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther. Martin Luther's three main teachings were
1.) salvation only through god
2.) church should focus on bible
3.) All people with faith are equal
Charles V (emperor of holy roman empire) declares ML heretic. Peasants revolt, Peace of Augsburg. Act of supremacy: king of England is head of church. creates unchecked power and unchecked divine power. John Calvin, a follower of Martin Luther, believes in predestination. This is the idea that you are already born either saved or damned by god. You can't do anything to change this. Your salvation is already determined.

the 95 theses


Pins the 95 theses on the church wall. this fires up the reformation

Cortes lands in mexico


lands in Aztec territory
wants gold and silver
a conquistador
has army of 600 men
Aztec offers half of what they have but Cortes denies and takes all of it

suleyman the magnificent

1520 - 1566

sultan of the ottoman empire. led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade and Rhodes as well as most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529

Ivan IV

1533 - 1584

at 16 ivan solidifies his power
marreis Anastasia Romanon
wife dies
blames boyars
secret police kill whoever Ivan says to kill
kills oldest son

Pizarro conquers the Inca


200 soldiers V.S. Inca (30,000)
conquers incan empire

act of supremacy


Declares king of England is head of church
gives unchecked power and unchecked divine power


1542 - 1605

empire strikes back
recognizes military is key
uses heavy artillery against enemies
treats conquered people well
continues islamic tradition of religious freedom
creates granulated tax
eliminates non-muslim tax

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

high ranking catholic church members.
1.) church interpretations of Bible are final
2.) church and bible are equally powerful
3.) Salvation is possible through faith and work
4.) Indulgences are banned

Catholic Reformation

1545 - 1648

1.) Christian schools in Europe
2.) Stop the spread of protestantism
3.) convert non-muslims

This connects to the reformation because it was the Catholic church trying to regain their power that was lost in the reformation.

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800

Geocentric Theory ---> earth is in the middle of the universe
believed god put earth in the center of the universe
Heliocentric theory- sun in the center of the universe
Copernicus- came up with this theory
Galileo- Italian scientist, invented telescope, put on trial by church, on house arrest until death

Peace Of Augsburg


declared by Charles V
any and every ruler decides religion for his/her kingdom
this expanded and created new religions

Elizabethan Era

1558 - 1603

Renaissance in England. William Shakespeare is a major person during this time. He created millions of plays that are still used today. He talked about human weaknesses/flaws. Believed literature and art were important.

The Elizabethan Era connects to the Catholic reformation because it was trying to spread protestantism while Mary, Queen of Scotts was trying to force catholicism into England playing a part into going against the catholic reformation.

william shakespeare

1564 - 1616

most famous playwrite. wrote thousands of plays and created hundreds of words that are still used today.

ODA nobunaga


a daimyo
successfully uses muskets in battle
dreams of unifying japan but never does
commits seppuku in 1582

philip II


defeats the ottoman empire
loses control of netherlands
declares himself king of portugal
gains africa from portugal colonies
gains slaves

Toyotomi Hideyoshi


by 1590, controls most of japan
dies in 1598

Feodor I

1584 - 1598

takes over after Ivan the terrible
incompetent, can't produce heir


1587 - 1590

115 english settlers arrive in roanoke. John White- governor of Roanoke, sails back to queen Elizabeth to tell her how its going. Forced to fight in was with spain. He stays for 3 years when he was only supposed to be gone for 6 months. Returns to roanoke in 1590. No on is there, everyone left. clothes still hanging on line, butter still churning.
2 things are left in writing
1. "Croatoan" carved into fence post.
2. "Cro" stretched into tree trunk.
oldest unsolved mystery in America

shah jahan

1593 - 1666

obsessed with his wife
builds the Taj Mahal for her
not a good ruler
people are starving

Tokogawa Ieyasu


unifies all of japan
moves capital to Edo --> now called Tokyo
forces daimyo families to live in Edo

Tokogawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

japanese feudal system
like ming dynasty

Dutch East India Company Founded


Dutch move to Indonesia
create rigid class system
British take Malayan Peninsula
establish major port in Singapore


1605 - 1627

lets his wife Nur rule
has son, Kushrau, who rebels against him



First permanent English settlement in North America.
-constant wars/raids by Native Americans.
1609-1610 was know as the "Starving Time"
in 1610- Spring of 1610 happened, the people were ready to leave and go back home. While getting ready to leave 2 english ships arrive.
1st ship was John Rolf
2nd ship was tobacco
Tobacco was controlled by Spain and you could be killed if you were seen growing it. First african americans are brought in to farm the tobacco. Rolf goes and meets with Chief Powhatan and he wants to make peace with the natives. Rolf marries Pocahontas. Rolf was first captured by the Natives and Pocahontas convinces to set him free in 1607. She is only 14/15 when married. Jamestown was built on tobacco.

Romanov Dynasty

1613 - 1917

Anastasia's great nephew takes over
ends due to russian revolution

japan shifts to isolation


leaves nagasaki port open


1618 - 1707

kills older brothers
expands empire to its largest size
enforces strict islamic rule
brings back non-muslim tax

Isaac Newton

1643 - 1727

theory of motion
laws of gravity

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912

Manchus/Manchurians conquer china
lower taxes


1661 - 1722

Gave smart people government jobs

Peter the great

1696 - 1725

only has one port (Arc angel)
frozen half of the year
starts 21 year war with sweden
gains port, St. Petersburg

Industrial Revolution

1700 - 1850

Agricultural revolution
higher crop volume=more money
tenant farming (also sharecropping) moved into farms and kicked small farmers out.
Jethro Toll- invented seed drill in 1701, higher crop yields.
rotated crops to keep nutrients in soil
between 1700-1788, average sheep size went from 18 pounds to 50 pounds
increase in food supply= increase in population
why Industrial Revolution began in England?
- large population of workers
- extensive natural resources
industrialization required extensive resources and goods
- water power and coal
- iron ore
- Rivers
- harbors

inventions: 1733- flying shuttle, 1764- spinning jenny, 1769- water frame, 1779- spinning wheel, 1787- power loom

1830- railroad from Liverpool to Manchester created.
-Started in Great Britain
machines changed people's way of life as well as their methods of manufacture. About the time of the American Revolution, the people of England began to use machines to make cloth and steam engines to run the machines.
-They had the resources necessary
Started rotating crops
- railroad become relevant
-created agricultural revolution
- Spain and Austria failed to industrialize
- Asia and Africa never industrialized

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

Paved way for wealthy land owners to enclose their property
-called enclosures
experimented with ways to produce more
-higher crop volume=more money
Tenant farming was invented, which was basically sharecropping.
Rotating crops would allow the ground to keep the nutrients.
- Also introduced selective breeding.


1735 - 1796

china reaches its largest size
strict trade laws for foreigners

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

freed america from Britain
became own country
signed by T.J., John Hancock

The French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Taxes are high, high costs, and crop failure. France is divided into 3 estates. 1st estate is roman catholic clergy, they pay 2% taxes. 2nd estate is nobles and pay 0% taxes. 3rd Estate is everyone else, they make up 97% of the population of France, pays 50% taxes. Louis XVI doubles debt. he funds american revolution. 3rd estate wants to call for a vote to get 2nd estate to pay taxes. Tennis court treaty created. National assembly creates Declaration of man and the citizen. (basically declaration of independence) Delcares war on Prussia and Austria. King louis XVI is killed.

essay on principal of population


pop increases more than food supply. wars and epidemics occurred to kill extra people

The continental system


closes all ports to prevent Great Britain to access any european nations

The Peninsula War began.

1808 - 1814

Napoleon finds out that Portugal isn't closing their ports
Spain doesn't want french troops in their territory
Spain uses guerrilla warfare
Nationalism spreads

Invasion of Russia


Alexander I - leader of Russia
Alexander I and Napoleon are allies
Alex refuses to stop selling to GB
Both want poland
Napoleon invades Russia
Alexander uses scorched earth policy
napoleon enters moscow
- napoleon sees it is burned and retreats back to France
leaves during winter, thousand die

Napoleon's Downfall


after failed invasion of Russia, Russia, Prussia, Britain, Austria, and Sweden all declare war on France
Napoleon surrenders
banished to Elba
Louis XVIII is in power
napoleon escapes Elba
raises army
Napoleon attacks but is defeated

congress of vienna


After Napoleon, Europe had a new goal: collective security and stability. European countries met in Vienna for 8 months.



john Stewart questions unregulated capitalism. wished to help working people w/ politics that would lead to more equal division of profits. Robert Owen tried to improve workers conditions by renting houses at low costs and didn't allow children under 10 to work in factories

Royal Niger Company


Britain gained control of Nigeria
Rebellions against foreign intervention
Controlled palm-oil trade
Berlin Conference gave Britain control of Niger river delta

Britain claims Nigeria as a colony


extremely diverse