Beginning of Ottoman Empire
The Manchurians took over and conquered China which ended the Ming Dynasty and started the Qing Dynasty. Also the taxes are lowered because of the Manchurians.
Columbus sails in 1492 which eventually prompts, in 1500, Cabral reaching Brazil and claiming it for Portugal.
King Henry VIII starts split of Catholic Church in England.
1534 - Act of Supremacy
John Calvin - A follower of Martin Luther
1517 - Pope Leo X threatened to have Martin Luther excommunicated
- Charles V declares Martin Luther a heteric
1555 - Peace of Augsburg
Theory: Someone in Roanoke got a disease and the disease started spreading and so people started leaving Roanoke to get away from the disease but eventually died off from the disease anyway. And the clothes and butter were left because the people didn't want to touch something that could possibly be diseased. I don't know about the dismembered houses though.
-Grows over time
-British government regulated East India Company
-The company had its own army led by British officers and staffed by Sepoys (Indian soldiers)
"Jewel in the Crown"
-Britain treasured Indian for its potential
-Population of 300 million
-Potential market for British goods
-Considered India to be the “jewel in the crown” or Britain’s most valuable colony
-British colonies encouraged India to produce raw materials and buy British goods.
Impact of Colonialism:
-Railroad network massive=India develops modern economy
-Bandits cleared out of central India
-Ended local warfare
-British held political and economic power
-Loss of self-sufficiency
-Conversion to cash crops reduced food production=famines
-Threatened traditional Indian life
Controls Indonesia Island, Dutch moved to Indonesia and created a rigid system.
-Top were the Dutch
- Second were wealthy and educated Indonesians
- Both were plantation workers
Dutch forced farmers to plant 1/5 of their crops as export crops.
Paved the way for the Industrial Revolution because it introduced the first machinery to help with work on the farm.
-Philosopher of Industrialization
-Professor who defended the idea of a free economy
-Believed that three natural laws of economics existed
Law of Self-Interest - People work for their own good
Law of Competition - Competition forces people to make better products
Law of Supply and Demand - Price balances itself out
John Kay invented this to double the work a weaver could do in a day.
The Economic policy of letting industry and business set working conditions without government interference.
Philosophers of Industrialization were unregulated by the government and criticized the idea that nations grow wealthy by placing heavy tariffs on foreign goods.
-Opposed government efforts to help poor workers
-Creating minimum wage laws would destroy free market systems
-Government interference only hurts economies
-Led East India Company against Indian forces at the Battle of Plassey
-His victory allowed the British East India Company to rule for the next 100 years
The Industrial Revolution introduced more technology and machines to help get work done more efficiently and this revolution has changed the world ever since it started because of that.
Living conditions sucked because English cities grew rapidly and they weren't prepared so cities lacked sanitary codes and building codes. Disease was widely spread.
Created jobs and wealth for country, technological innovation, production of goods, raised standard of living, and healthier diets.
Price of goods decreased, working conditions improve.
James Hargreaves invents a spinning wheel
Richard Arkwright invents this; it used water power to drive the spinning wheels
Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the water frame and produced the spinning mule, made string that was finer, stronger and more consistent.
The invention of the steam engine changed the evolution of means of transportation forever after that.
Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom
He emigrated to the U.S. and brought the design for the spinning machine with him.
-100,000 slaves led by Toussaint L’Ouverture rise up against French oppression
-L’Ouverture agrees, with France, to end rebellion
-France betrays him, and throws him in jail
-L’Ouverture dies in jail in 1803
-Jean-Jacques Dessalines wins independence
-Names land “Haiti”
-1807-Napoleon’s army closes in on Portugal
-Portuguese royal family leaves Portugal and heads to Brazil
-Rules the empire from Brazil
-1815-Napoleon is defeated
-1821-Portuguese royal family leaves Brazil, but leaves Prince Dom Pedro behind to rule Brazil
-1822-Creoles demand Brazilian Independence AND that Dom Pedro be the first leader of the new country
-1822-Dom Pedro agrees and Brazil becomes an independent country
-1819, Simon Bolivar leads 2,000 men across the Andes into present day Colombia and defeats the Spanish Army
-1821, Venezuela is now Independent
-1817-Jose de San Martin leads an army from Argentina, across the Andes, and into Chile
-Frees Chile from Spanish rule
-Bolivar and San Martin meet in person to get rid of Spain in Latin America
-Two men reach an agreement and San Martin gives his army to Bolivar
-Bolivar is successful with the army and defeats the Spanish to liberate Peru
The single biggest affect on industrialization, Great Britain blockaded the U.S. preventing it from trading with other countries for goods-----> U.S. developed its own industries.
He mechanized every stage in the manufacturing of cloth.
Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia
Nearly all of these powers were equal in strength
Congress of Vienna tries to prevent one country from having too much power.
-Latin American countries feared European powers would recover the new republics, so did the U.S.
-Lin Zexu writes to Queen Victoria- no response
-Britain continues to trade opium
-Most battles were at sea
-Chinese outdated ships vs British steam-powered gunboats
-China suffers a humiliating defeat
-Britain gain the island of Hong Kong
-1844-China signs another treaty granting foreign citizens extraterritorial rights
-Foreigners were not subject to Chinese law
Romantic thinkers went against the ideas of Enlightenment and focused more on emotion, nature, and art. Nationalism fuels the idea of Romanticism.
People started breaking away from Romanticism because they started thinking it was pointless. They then started painting pictures of real life events and moments to capture what it was really like in their life in that time.
-Dispute over Texas border
-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the war
-U.S. gains over 500,000 square miles
-U.S. paid Mexico $15 million and paid Mexican debts to U.S. citizens
"Government needs to intervene"
-People should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their usefulness.
-Government should try to promote the greatest good for the largest number of people.
-John Stuart Mill questioned unregulated capitalism.
-Robert Owen - tried to improve workers conditions by renting houses at low cost and prohibited children under 10 from working.
-Established a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana, he intended for it to be a utopia...it lasted for three years.
"belief that one’s loyalty should be to a group of people, not a king or empire".
Types of movements:
-Unification: Mergers of politically divided but culturally similar lands.
-Separation: Culturally distinct group resists being added to a state or tries to break away.
-State-Building: Culturally distinct groups form into a new state by accepting a single culture.
-Late 1830s-Hong Xiuquan (Shee-oo-choo-ahn starts recruiting followers to build the “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace”
-His movement was called the Taiping Rebellion
-Peasant army of 1,000,000
-In 1853 Hong captured Nanjing, making it his capital and then withdrew from everyday life, didn't even rule
-1864-the Taiping Rebellion ended, an estimated 20-40 million dead
People don’t mind as they don’t want instability
He also built railroads, encouraged industrialization, and decreased unemployment
-British, French, Russian, and American convoys have attempted to get into Japan for hundreds of years
-Japan consistently refuses to allow them entrance
-1853- an American, Matthew Perry, brought four modern ships into Tokyo Harbor. He also had a message from President Millard Fillmore
-1854-the Treaty of Kanagawa was signed
By 1860-Japan, like China, had treaties with nearly every European Country and America, granting them total access to Japanese ports.
-Livingstone travels to Central Africa
-Henry Stanley was sent to find him, finds him in 1871
-King Leopold II intrigued by Stanley’s explorations
-Between 1879 and 1882, Stanley signed treaties with local chiefs along the Congo River Valley.
-Czar Nicholas I wanted to expand his country, fought against the Ottoman Empire: Russia loses
-Very apparent that Russia is technologically behind, country needs to become more advanced
Alexander II takes over and begins reforms
-1861- eliminates feudal system
-Gives peasants half of nobles land, pays nobles for the land, but tells peasants they must pay for the land in 49 years
-1881 - Alexander II assassinated
-Alexander III takes over, continues his father's’ policies
This angered conservative Turks and caused tensions in the empire
In response to this, the Ottoman Empire massacred and deported Armenians from 1894 to 1896 and again in 1915
-1850 India, Samyra controlled most of India
-British were trying to force Christianity on them
-1857-Gossip spreads throughout India that new cartridges for their weapons were greased with pork and beef fat = Hindus consider the cow sacred, Muslims don’t eat pork
-85 of 90 sepoys refused to accept the cartridges, they were jailed
-Sepoys rebelled and captured Delhi
-East India Company regains control of the rebellion, but they needed help from the British government sent troops to help
Nationalism surfaces in India - Ram Roy:
-Modern thinking educated Indian
-Wanted to move Indians away from traditional practices
-Hated child marriages and the caste system
1861- eliminates feudal system
Gives peasants half of nobles land, pays nobles for the land, but tells peasants they must pay for the land in 49 years
-Argentinian [Reform Minded]
-Made strong commitments to improve education
-# of students doubled
-Argentinian [Reform Minded]
-Made strong commitments to improve education
-# of students doubled
After Civil War:
-13: Abolishes Slavery
-14: Anyone born in U.S. is a citizen
-15: Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on race, etc.
Prussia gains control of the new North German Confederation
Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria splits the empire in half, declaring Austria and Hungary independent states...yet he was still in charge of both
-1867-Tokugawa Shogunate steps down and Mutsuhito is now in charge of the country
-Unlike China, Mutsuhito realizes the only way to counter western influence is to modernize
-Emperor Mutsuhito sends diplomats all over the world
-Modeled his country after the best that other countries had to offer
-Admired Germany’s strong central government and disciplined military
-Admired Britain’s navy
-Admired America’s universal public education
-Japan begins to rebuild the country, Japan begins to modernize and industrialize
-U.S. grew cash crops in Philippines (sugar)
-Philippines felt betrayed over U.S. colonization
-1890-McKinley Tariff Act eliminated all tariffs on sugar. This undercut Hawaii's sugar profits and made the republic suffer
-1894-Dole takes over in Hawaii
-1898-U.S. annexes Hawaii
-Japan claims this is a breach of the treaty and sends troops into Korea to fight the Chinese
-1895-Japan is victorious and signs a treaty with China. Japan has its first colony. (Taiwan)
-U.S. joins Cuban for independence
-American attacks Spain in the Philippines
-America wins, Spain turns over its colonies
-Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines become U.S. territories
-1899-“Open Door Policy” was declared in China
-Protected United States’ trading rights and gave China a way to avoid colonization (Other nations take advantage of China’s situation, after each attack, China signs a treaty with the attacker. Each of these treaties increased foreign control over China’s economy. The United States was a long time trading partner with China and feared that China would be divided like Africa and the United States would be excluded).
-Poor peasants and workers resented the privileges of foreigners
-Formed a secret society “Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists”
-Came to be known as the “Boxers”
-Campaigned against Dowager Princess’ rule and foreign privilege
-1900-the Boxers descended on Beijing
-Shouted “Death to the foreign devils”
-Surrounded the European sector and kept it under siege for months
-19,000 foreign troops arrived and quickly defeated the Boxers
-Nationalism emerged in China
-Chinese people began to realize the future of their country relied on keeping foreigners out
-1905-Dowager Empress sent a group of officials on a world tour
-Returned in spring of 1906
-Officials told the Empress that she should restructure their government
-This never occurred
-1903-Japan offers to recognize Manchuria as part of Russia IF Russia in turn would stay out of Korea. Russia refused and a war breaks out.
-1904-Japan launches a sneak attack on the Russian fleet. Most of the Russian fleet is destroyed
-1905-Russia and Japan sign the Treaty of Portsmouth.
-Russia had to withdraw from Manchuria and had to stay out of Korea
-Gave the U.S. the right to be "an international police power" in the western hemisphere
-Japanese are harsh rulers
-Replaced Korean language and subjects with Japanese history
-Took away land from Korean farmers and gave it to Japanese farmers
-Eventually resentment builds in Korea towards Japan.