A suggestion rose from the Chinese leaders, that the population should be controlled and a law was approved on contraception and abortion. However, the plan was scrapped due to the 1959-61 famine and the political upheaval.
China's population exceeds 800 million.
The Chinese government utilized the solgan "later, longer, fewer" to discourage couples to have more than one child.
The Communist party introduced the 'One Child' policy, stating couples should have no more than one child, and are obliged to practise family planning.
A second child is allowed for families in rural areas as they depend on their children to work and as economic assets, and allowing couples both being an only child to have a second child, along with other specified circumstances.
Penalties for unapproved births and other management for the administration of the policy was introduced, such as allowing local governments to enforce fines for additional children in a family.
Two children in a family were exempted for couples in which one of them, rather than both, is an only child.
China's lawmakers allows couples to have more than two children from January 1st, 2016, due to a potential demographic crisis.