History of the English Language

Events

Caesar Conquest of Gaul

55 B.C.

*Romans called English people= "__________"
*Lots of Romans died

Emperor Claudius and the Roman Conquest

43 A.D.

Decline of Roman Empire

449 A.D.

Germanic Tribes invaded Britain

449 A.D.

Germanic tribes include:
- Jutes
- Saxon
- Angles

Old English

450 - 1150

Synthetic Language: word order doesn't matter, subject/objects based on inflections

-High inflections

St. Augustine Missionaries

597
  • Irish Catholics: Celtics
  • Roman Christian Missionaries; Latin

Bede writes Ecclesiastical History of the English People

731 A.D.

-Known as Anglo- Saxon Chronicle

Charlemagne, King of Franks beings to influence

800

Englisc changed to ENGLISH

1000

King Cnut Ruled England from Denmark

1014 - 1044

English King, Edward Confessor ruled

1044 - 1066

Danes had no one to succeed them

Norman Conquest

1066 - 1200

William, Duke of Normandy (the conqueor) becomes King

1066 - 1087

Edward dies-- no heirs
related through father's bloodline

Middle English

1150 - 1500
  • Inflections wears down. (shift in phonetic language)

Henry II

1154 - 1189

French-born kind- bloodline to William

Richard I

1189 - 1199

" the Lionheart"

King John

1199 - 1216
  • Lost control of 75% of France (1204)

Magna Carta

1215

Held everyone accountable under the law

Henry III

1216 - 1272

Wife's family comes to court from France evolves language.

Merchant Class Progress

1216 - 1272
  • under Henry III, merchants become bilingual because of trading purposes
  • functional on both sides of the channel

English people are made to choose between France or England

1244

Edward I

1272 - 1307
  • Focus on Kingdom & Scotland
  • French in England different from that in France
  • Wife is Spanish

** France Flourishes

Unification of England

1272 - 1307
  • Under Edward I, he unifies ENG into a monolithic structure

Flourishing France

1307 - 1415

France was highly respected
- thought of as a "sophisticated language
- the upper class used french & courts

Edward II

1307 - 1327
  • wife & lover ( a guy) plot & have him murdered
  • grew up speaking French
  • King during 100 year war

Edward III

1327 - 1377
  • Longest reigning Monarch in 50 years.
  • King wgen 16 years old.

100 Years War

1337 - 1453

English Win

The Great Vowel Shift

1350 - 1700

Bible published in English

1384

Speaking English in England

1450
  • vocab & grammatical/ syntax changes
  • 4 different kinds of French influences

Printing Press comes to England

1476

Modern English

1500 - 1800

Analytic Language: Word order matters, prepositions used.

  • Mild inflections (pronouns: he/him)
  • weak/ strong Verbs

Late Modern English

1800 - Present