James I was an Anglican and he suppressed Catholics and Protestants.
1625 - 1649
He was very Anglican and his suppression of other sects of Christianity and his alienation of Parliament led to the English Civil War (different from the English Revolution) and the rule of Cromwell, a Puritan.
English Civil War
1642 - 1651
Led by Cromwell. Caused many people to flee to America.
Cromwell in Power
1653 - 1658
1660 - 1685
Supported religious toleration. Gave land as gifts to courtiers.
Ended Cromwell's commonwealth.
1685 - 1688
Converted to Catholicism and became unpopular due to discrimination against Protestants.
Bloodless turnover of throne due to threats from Parliament. James II abdicated to William and Mary.
William and Mary
1689 - 1702
1702 - 1714
1714 - 1727
1727 - 1760
1760 - 1820
Events in America
Jamestown, Virginia founded by Virginia Co.
These were businessmen who were looking for a profit.
Harsh rule of De La Warr in Jamestown
1610 - ~1614
John Rolfe starts tobacco cultivation in VA
House of Burgesses
Representative assembly in VA.
Pilgrims est. Plymouth Plantation
They came over on the Mayflower from Holland, where they had fled earlier. Their founding document was the Mayflower Compact.
Spanish and Dutch fight
While the Spanish were distracted, the English took colonies in the Caribbean.
1621 - 1657
Bradford was popular and bought Plymouth colony its independence from the financiers in England.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Established by a group of Puritan merchants who wanted to make money, this colony soon became a kind of Puritan Haven and not just an economic venture.
People start moving to CT Valley
1629 - ~1640
After Massachusetts narrowed its religious views (Anne Hutchinson), people moved the CT Valley, Maine, and New Hampshire.
1630 - 1649
Governor of Mass Bay Colony, he faced election each year after 1634 as the original government of the shareholders gave way to a vote by all male citizens. Dissidents had no freedom of worship, and there was mandatory church attendance.
Established by Lord Baltimore (Calvert) as a place of refuge for Catholics. Soon, however, he began to allow other religions, which led to the toleration act.
1635 - 1643
She challenged Winthrop's government and Massachusetts' view on women and religion. She moved to NY (not a colony yet) and died in an NA uprising. Her challenge led her supporters to migrate to New Hampshire and Maine.
Roger Williams est. Rhode Island
He left Massachusetts because he believed that the church should separate from England completely and he wanted a separation of church and state.
Settlers in the Connecticut Valley and Pequot Indians went to war after conflict over trade with the Dutch in New Netherland and friction over land. English allied with Mohegan and Narraganset NAs.
Berkeley's Autocratic Rule (VA)
1642 - 1677
Popular governor at first, but the lower classes resented his deference to fighting the Indians on the western borders. He restricted the vote to landowners.
Toleration Act in Maryland
Lord Baltimore allowed freedom of worship to all Christians in Maryland.
1660 - 1673
Issued by Charles II: closed colonies to foreign trade, limited trade, put taxes on goods, made colonies export certain things.
1663 - 1665
Charles II gave land to his fav court people. Religious freedom given to all Christians. The people of the Barbados populated Carolina first.
New York and New Jersey est.
Established by King James II (before he was king). Taken from the Dutch. Diverse people, religious freedom.
Fundamental Constitution of Carolina
Made by John Locke and founder Cooper: social order and distribution of land. But Carolina remained separated (N and S).
Massachusetts loses independence and becomes a royal colony
1669 - 1674
Charles II took away the colony's independence.
King Philip's War
1675 - 1678
The Wampanoags attacked a bunch of towns in Massachusetts in order to stop the settlers from expanding into their territory. Settlers allied with Mohawks.
Angered by lack of response by Berkeley to 1675 Doeg NA uprising. Led to people in W and S parts of VA coming together to prevent further social unrest, which led to the use of black slaves.
William Penn est. Pennsylvania
Established and colonized by the Quakers (democratic dissenting Protestants). Land very good for farming. Advertised and inhabited by many different nationalities and religions.
Penn est. Philadelphia
Philadelphia became a model city.
Single Dominion of New England
1686 - 1688
James II took away the governments of New England colonies and ruled them all through Edmund Andros: crude and arbitrary rule. Ended with the Glorious Revolution.
John Goode's Rebellion
1689 - 1691
In Maryland, John Goode led a rebellion against the rule the Catholic Lord Baltimore. Maryland became a royal colony under William and Mary.
Charter of Liberties
Gave Pennsylvanians freedom to govern themselves through representative council. The Low Colonies could have their own gov, which led to the creation of Delaware.
Low Colonies of Pennsylvania split off.
Oglethorpe est. Georgia
Oglethorpe established Georgia as a military barrier between the Spanish and South Carolina, and as a humanitarian settlement for impoverished English to get a second chance.