APUSH Early Colonies

Events in England

James I

1603 - 1625

James I was an Anglican and he suppressed Catholics and Protestants.

Charles I

1625 - 1649

He was very Anglican and his suppression of other sects of Christianity and his alienation of Parliament led to the English Civil War (different from the English Revolution) and the rule of Cromwell, a Puritan.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Led by Cromwell. Caused many people to flee to America.

Cromwell in Power

1653 - 1658

Authoritarian regime.

Stuart Restoration


Ended Cromwell's commonwealth.

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Supported religious toleration. Gave land as gifts to courtiers.

James II

1685 - 1688

Converted to Catholicism and became unpopular due to discrimination against Protestants.

Glorious Revolution


Bloodless turnover of throne due to threats from Parliament. James II abdicated to William and Mary.

William and Mary

1689 - 1702

Protestant rule.


1702 - 1714

George I

1714 - 1727

George II

1727 - 1760

George III

1760 - 1820

Events in America

Jamestown, Virginia founded by Virginia Co.


These were businessmen who were looking for a profit.

Harsh rule of De La Warr in Jamestown

1610 - Approx. 1614

John Rolfe starts tobacco cultivation in VA


House of Burgesses


Representative assembly in VA.

Pilgrims est. Plymouth Plantation


They came over on the Mayflower from Holland, where they had fled earlier. Their founding document was the Mayflower Compact.

William Bradford

1621 - 1657

Bradford was popular and bought Plymouth colony its independence from the financiers in England.

Spanish and Dutch fight


While the Spanish were distracted, the English took colonies in the Caribbean.

People start moving to CT Valley

1629 - Approx. 1640

After Massachusetts narrowed its religious views (Anne Hutchinson), people moved the CT Valley, Maine, and New Hampshire.

Massachusetts Bay Colony


Established by a group of Puritan merchants who wanted to make money, this colony soon became a kind of Puritan Haven and not just an economic venture.

John Winthrop

1630 - 1649

Governor of Mass Bay Colony, he faced election each year after 1634 as the original government of the shareholders gave way to a vote by all male citizens. Dissidents had no freedom of worship, and there was mandatory church attendance.

Maryland est.


Established by Lord Baltimore (Calvert) as a place of refuge for Catholics. Soon, however, he began to allow other religions, which led to the toleration act.

Anne Hutchinson

1635 - 1643

She challenged Winthrop's government and Massachusetts' view on women and religion. She moved to NY (not a colony yet) and died in an NA uprising. Her challenge led her supporters to migrate to New Hampshire and Maine.

Roger Williams est. Rhode Island


He left Massachusetts because he believed that the church should separate from England completely and he wanted a separation of church and state.

Pequot War


Settlers in the Connecticut Valley and Pequot Indians went to war after conflict over trade with the Dutch in New Netherland and friction over land. English allied with Mohegan and Narraganset NAs.

Berkeley's Autocratic Rule (VA)

1642 - 1677

Popular governor at first, but the lower classes resented his deference to fighting the Indians on the western borders. He restricted the vote to landowners.

Toleration Act in Maryland


Lord Baltimore allowed freedom of worship to all Christians in Maryland.

Navigation Acts

1660 - 1673

Issued by Charles II: closed colonies to foreign trade, limited trade, put taxes on goods, made colonies export certain things.

Carolinas est.

1663 - 1665

Charles II gave land to his fav court people. Religious freedom given to all Christians. The people of the Barbados populated Carolina first.

New York and New Jersey est.


Established by King James II (before he was king). Taken from the Dutch. Diverse people, religious freedom.

Massachusetts loses independence and becomes a royal colony

1669 - 1674

Charles II took away the colony's independence.

Fundamental Constitution of Carolina


Made by John Locke and founder Cooper: social order and distribution of land. But Carolina remained separated (N and S).

King Philip's War

1675 - 1678

The Wampanoags attacked a bunch of towns in Massachusetts in order to stop the settlers from expanding into their territory. Settlers allied with Mohawks.

Bacon's Rebellion


Angered by lack of response by Berkeley to 1675 Doeg NA uprising. Led to people in W and S parts of VA coming together to prevent further social unrest, which led to the use of black slaves.

William Penn est. Pennsylvania


Established and colonized by the Quakers (democratic dissenting Protestants). Land very good for farming. Advertised and inhabited by many different nationalities and religions.

Penn est. Philadelphia


Philadelphia became a model city.

Single Dominion of New England

1686 - 1688

James II took away the governments of New England colonies and ruled them all through Edmund Andros: crude and arbitrary rule. Ended with the Glorious Revolution.

John Goode's Rebellion

1689 - 1691

In Maryland, John Goode led a rebellion against the rule the Catholic Lord Baltimore. Maryland became a royal colony under William and Mary.

Charter of Liberties


Gave Pennsylvanians freedom to govern themselves through representative council. The Low Colonies could have their own gov, which led to the creation of Delaware.

Delaware est.


Low Colonies of Pennsylvania split off.

Oglethorpe est. Georgia


Oglethorpe established Georgia as a military barrier between the Spanish and South Carolina, and as a humanitarian settlement for impoverished English to get a second chance.

English acquire Florida


Aftermath of 7 Years' War