EU Governance-Cohesion and Division

Events

Treaty of Paris/ECSC Treaty

1951 - Present

Cohesion-6 countries come together. European Coal and Steel Community

Treaty of Rome

1957 - Present

Cohesion-European Economic Community and Eurotom- creates Common Market. Freedom of movement of capital and workers
Division-Not all of Europe is involved-Soviet Bloc set up own version COMECON

EFTA Launched

1960 - Present

Division-Western Europe is in 2 camps. 7 countries form alternative-based on free trade.

France Veto UK entry x2

1963 - 1967

Division-De Gaulle unhappy about USA influence in Europe and over Britain veto's UK entry twice

Growth - +3

1973 - Present

Cohesion-UK allowed to enter EU-along with Denmark and Ireland-expansion and more unity
Division-Norway's public vote against joining in their referendum

European Monetary System (EMS) established.

1979 - Present

Cohesion-European exchange rate mechanism established- Ecu introduced used for travellers cheques and bank deposits. National currencies exchange rate linked to Ecu

First Direct Elections to EU Parliament

1979 - Present

Cohesion-European governance is given validity with the first direct elections to an European Parliament
Division-Some member population feel more sovereign power has been taken

Single Market

1986 - Present

Division-UK opts out of monetary union and social chapter. In future there will be datable over immigration

Maastricht Treaty

1992 - Present

Division-UK opts out of monetary union and social chapter. In future there will be datable over immigration

Four Freedoms

1993 - Present

Cohesion-Movement of goods-services-people-workers/capital. It is now easier to move around
Division-People worry about the four freedoms not being secure and job security

Schengen Agreements

1995 - Present

Cohesion-Easier to move goods, people across Europe Boarders opened-easier to move around

Amsterdam Treaty

1997 - Present

Cohesion-Maastricht social chapter becomes EU law. Law on employment and anti-discrimination

Enlargement

1998 - Present

Cohesion-Negotiations welcome past Warsaw Pact countries to join such as Poland, Estonia and Hungary
Division-Large movements of workers especially from former Eastern Europe looking for better paid jobs

European Crisis

1999 - Present

Cohesion-Revelations of fraud nepotism and mismanagement undermine the commission
Division-All 20 commissioners including President Jacques Santer resign

Euro Introduced

2002 - Present

Cohesion-12 participating states and over next few months their national currencies were phased out

Constitution

2004 - Present

Cohesion-Aimed to simplify the EU treaties so they were more understandable to the EU citizens
Division-Intergovernmental disagreements on the way

Enlargement

2004 - 2007

Cohesion-More former Eastern bloc countries join
Division-Some member states worry if they are economically ready to join-worried about organised crime, food safety and use of EU funds

No Votes

2005 - Present

Division-Voters in France and Netherlands vote NO to the constitution-not ratified and fails