Invented by Kenneth Cole and George Marmont.
Current Generator. Keeps cell membrane potential at a determined level.
Neural interface that connects neurons to electronic circuitry.
Conducted by C.A. Thomas, Jr. and colleagues.
Developed in iterations by entities such as Sophion Bioscience, Neuropatch and Flyion.
Allows study of single or multiple ion channels in cells (neurons).
Multi-Electrode Array Chip.
First gene synthesis experiments occurred in the laboratories of Herbert Boyer and Alexander Markham.
(Allows heterologous gene expression to be possible for more precise neuronal experiments.)
First synthetic scaffold of a human bladder was created with a 3D printer, which was later coated with cells to grow a working bladder.