Optogenetics

Electrophysiology

Voltage Clamp Invented

1947

Invented by Kenneth Cole and George Marmont.
Current Generator. Keeps cell membrane potential at a determined level.

Multi-Electrode Array Developed

Approx. 1952 - Approx. 1958

Neural interface that connects neurons to electronic circuitry.

First Multi-Electrode Array Experiment

1972

Conducted by C.A. Thomas, Jr. and colleagues.

Patch Clamp Developed

Approx. 1977 - Approx. 1983

Developed in iterations by entities such as Sophion Bioscience, Neuropatch and Flyion.

Allows study of single or multiple ion channels in cells (neurons).

Patch Clamp Chip Developed

Approx. 1992 - Approx. 1998

Multi-Electrode Array Chip.

DNA Manipulation

Gene Synthesis Invented

1972

First gene synthesis experiments occurred in the laboratories of Herbert Boyer and Alexander Markham.
(Allows heterologous gene expression to be possible for more precise neuronal experiments.)

3D Bioprinting Developed

1999

First synthetic scaffold of a human bladder was created with a 3D printer, which was later coated with cells to grow a working bladder.

Optogenetics

Edward Boyden and Karl Diesseroth Begin Collaboration

2000

Boyden, et al. Paper Published

2005

The term "Optogenetics" is coined.

2006