Public Health

Events

The first recorded outbreak of Cholera in England

1831

Dr Robert Baker submits a report to the Leeds Board of Health

1833

Outlines the Cholera Investigation

The Poor Law Act

1834

The periodical 'Punch' is launched

1841

Edwin Chadwick publishes report on the sanitary conditions of the labouring population

1842

The Health of Towns Association is established

1844

Cholera epidemic

1848 - 1849

10,000 die in 3 months

Public Health Act

1848

Metropolitan Sanitary Association established

1849

Another outbreak of Cholera - Dr John Snow began to investigate how Cholera was spread through contaminated water

1854

The pump handle was removed where Dr John Snow found the most concentrated number of deaths and the death rate fell drastically

The Great Stink

1858

Revised Public Health Act

1858

Joseph Bazalgette was hired to make improvements to London's sewerage systems

1859 - 1865

Factory Act

1864

Another outbreak of Cholera

1866

The Sanitation Act

1866

Working-class townsmen got given the right to vote

1867

Joseph Chamberlain, the mayor of Birmingham, ordered the demolition of 40 acres of slums

1870

Vaccinations Act Reform

1871

Originally, vaccinations were made compulsory in 1853, but no one was given the power to enforce them.

Artisans Dwelling Act

1875

House owners became responsible for keeping properties in good shape

Public Health Act

1875

Waste removal, improved housing and quality checks on local food produce

1875

Local councils were responsible for providing clean water and paved streets, etc

Public Health Act: Consolidation of existing laws

1878

Training of midwives

1902

Legislation - all new mothers are visited by health visitors

1907

Medical exams of children conducted through schools

1907

Old Age Pension introduced for 70+ year olds

1908

National insurance scheme introduced

1911

It proves unemployment benefits, sick pay and the cost of doctors and medicines.

'Homes fit for heroes'

1918

After the First World War, British Prime Minister, Lloyd George, promised troops 'homes fit for heroes'. The government set a target of building half a million decent homes by 1933.

Ministry of Health formed

1919

Covers sanitation, health care, disease, training of doctors, nurses and dentists, and maternity and children's welfare.

Local authorities required to set up TB sanitoria

1921

Free school Milk Act

1934

Along with free school meals in some areas.

Jarrow crusade

1936

Welfare State

1942

Provided social security, free health care, free education, council housing and full employment.

New Towns Act

1946

To replace inner-city slums.

Town and Country Planning Act

1947

Aimed to build 300,000 homes a year.

Start of the National Health Service

1948

Smallpox vaccine made compulsory

1953

Clean Air Act

1956

Imposed smokeless zones in cities to reduce smog.

Smallpox outbreak

1962

The World Health Organisation campaigns to eradicate smallpox

1967

The Black Report

1980

Acknowledged that there were still inequalities in health existed between the rich and the poor.

NHS Trusts created

1991

Acheson Report

1998

Our Healthier Nation

1999

NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) is founded

1999

The smoke ban begins

2007