AP European History Timeline


Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The Hundred Year’s War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time.

The Black Death

1346 - Approx. 1400

A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe

Habsburg-Valois Wars

1494 - 1559

Reign of Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603


1694 - 1778

Cynical enlightened thinker who wrote much about the evils of the church and advocated freedom of religion and expression.


Approx. 1700 - Approx. 1800

A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosopher’s debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Period of French Revolt which lead to the Rise of Napolean Bonaparte and utilized many Enlightenment ideas to attempt to formulate a new government,



1304 - 1374

Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.


1313 - 1375

Humanist who wrote much in agreement with Petrach.

Italian Renaissance

Approx. 1350 - Approx. 1527

Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome

Piero de Medici

1416 - 1469

Cosimo de Medici

1434 - 1464

Lorenzo de Medici

1449 - 1492

Lorenzo the Magnificent

Northerern Renaissance

Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1648

Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years’ War


1466 - 1534

Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.

Niccolò Machiavelli

May 3, 1469 - June 21, 1527


1473 - 1543

Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.

King Charles VIII of France invaded Italy


With the goal of conquering Naples. Spain's King Ferdinand soon contested the French claim to Naples


1564 - 1616

Codified English Language, wrote many plays and sonnets

James I of England

1567 - 1625


Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1376

A time when the popes (Seven total) resided in Avignon, part of France, and were under influence of France. Lasted until Gregory XI moved the papacy to Rome.

John Wycliffe


John Wycliffe, founder of the Lollards, translated the Bible into vernacular English, which sets up some basis for the Protestant reformation.

John Hus and the Hussites

1403 - 1431

The Hussites were followers of the ideas of John Hus and were one of the forerunner groups for the reformation

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. Resolved in decision that Pope Martin V was the true pope.

Invention of the Printing Press


Printing press is invented by Gutenberg, revolutionizing the ability to print books, and spurring the Northern Renaissance.

Ferdinand and Isabella Marriage

October 18, 1469

King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations.

Martin Luther

November 10, 1483 - February 18, 1546

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

King Henry VIII of England

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.


1517 - 1648

The Protestant Reformation began with Luther’s posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years’ War

Luthers posts his 95 Thesis

October 31, 1517

Diet of Worms


German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1527

German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

“Bloody Mary”. Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants.

Peace of Augsburg


The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre


King Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

Politique who changed his religion and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, “Paris is well worth a Mass”

Edict of Nantes


Issued by Henry IV that allowed Calvinists of France many rights in attempt to promote civil unity.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants.

Treaty of Utrecht


The treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession allowing for Philip to remain King of Spain, but not King of France.

Exploration and Colonization

Colonization and Mercantilism (Commercial Revolution)

1488 - Approx. 1776

Period of European Commercial Revolution which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776

Columbian Exchange

1492 - Approx. 1776

Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution

Columbus's Discovery of the New World



1512 - Approx. 1730

An economic and social system that permitted that conquering Spaniards to collect tribute from the Indians and use them as laborers

Spanish Armada attacks

1588 Aug 8

The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively.