The Hundred Year’s War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time.
A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe
Cynical enlightened thinker who wrote much about the evils of the church and advocated freedom of religion and expression.
A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosopher’s debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.
Period of French Revolt which lead to the Rise of Napolean Bonaparte and utilized many Enlightenment ideas to attempt to formulate a new government,
Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.
Humanist who wrote much in agreement with Petrach.
Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome
Lorenzo the Magnificent
Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years’ War
Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.
Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.
With the goal of conquering Naples. Spain's King Ferdinand soon contested the French claim to Naples
Codified English Language, wrote many plays and sonnets
A time when the popes (Seven total) resided in Avignon, part of France, and were under influence of France. Lasted until Gregory XI moved the papacy to Rome.
John Wycliffe, founder of the Lollards, translated the Bible into vernacular English, which sets up some basis for the Protestant reformation.
The Hussites were followers of the ideas of John Hus and were one of the forerunner groups for the reformation
The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. Resolved in decision that Pope Martin V was the true pope.
Printing press is invented by Gutenberg, revolutionizing the ability to print books, and spurring the Northern Renaissance.
King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations.
Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
The Protestant Reformation began with Luther’s posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years’ War
German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.
Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.
“Bloody Mary”. Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants.
The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.
Politique who changed his religion and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, “Paris is well worth a Mass”
Issued by Henry IV that allowed Calvinists of France many rights in attempt to promote civil unity.
The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants.
The treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession allowing for Philip to remain King of Spain, but not King of France.
Period of European Commercial Revolution which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776
Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution
An economic and social system that permitted that conquering Spaniards to collect tribute from the Indians and use them as laborers
The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively.