Medicine and public health in Britain c50AD to the present day

Events

Hippocrates

460 BC - Approx. 375 BC

Britain became part of the Roman Empire.

43 AD

Galen

129 AD - 216 AD

Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity

313

Making it one of the official religons of the Roman Empire

Romans left Britain

410

Ethelbert, ruler of Kent, was converted to Christianity by St Augustine.

597

Leechbook of Bald

Approx. 930

Norman invasion of England

1066

St Bartholomew's Hospital founded in London.

1123

Many leper houses set up when there was an epidemic of leprosy.

Approx. 1200 - Approx. 1300

Great Hospital in Norwich founded by Bishop Walter de Suffield.

1249

John of Gaddesden

Approx. 1280 - 1361

The Goverment attempted to stop pigs being allowed in London's streets.

1281

Lead pipes laid to bring water from the river Tyburn to London

Approx. 1300

Sanitary Act tried to keep the streets cleaner.

1347

Black Death reached Britain.

1348

A parliamentary statue complaining that...

1388

'dung and filth... in ditches, rivers and other waters... so that the air there is grown greatly corrupt and infected and many intolerable diseases happen'.

Almhouses begin to be set up to care for the 'deserving' poor and old.

Approx. 1400

First book printing in England

1476

Vesalius published 'The fabric of the human body'

1543

Invention of the water closet (WC) BY Sir John Harrington

1596

Harvey published 'On the motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals'

1628

Charles the second

1630 - 1685

Royal Society established

1660

Plague in London

1665

If someone had died from the Plague, their whole family was locked into the house for 28 days to prevent them spreading the plague any further.

John Hunter

1728 - 1793

Laws passed to make Gin more expensive

1750

Edward Jenner tested his vaccination for smallpox

1796

The government ordered a census from every parish...

1801

to include the number of houses and families in the area, christenings, marriages and burials and whether people were employed.

The first population census in Britain

1801

Jennerian Society set up in London to promote vaccination

1802

Royal college of surgeons introduced exams before awarding certificates to doctors

1815

Florence Nightingale

1820 - 1910

The census added age

1821

Cholera first arrived in Britain

1831

The anatomy act

1832

Allowed licensed 'anatomists' to take the corpse of anyone dying in the workhouse, who was not claimed by a relative.

Proper training for nurses begins in Germany at Kaiserwerth

1833

Poor law amendment act

1834

The census added gender and occupation

1841

Chadwick's 'Report on the sanitary conditions of the Labouring population of Great Britain'

1842

Another Cholera epidemic in Britain

1848

Leading to the Government trying out some of Chadwick's ideas.

Public health act

1848

Which set up a general board of health, with Chadwick as one of the three commissioners. It also allowed towns to:

set up their own local Board of Health
appoint a local medical officer
organise the removal of rubbish
build a sewer system

Florence Nightingale trained at Kaiserwerth hospital

1850

Compulsory Vaccinations

1852

Not properly enforced until 1871. When local authorities were forced to register everyone who was vaccinated, causing the number of deaths due to smallpox to drop dramatically.

The Government makes it compulsory to be vaccinated

1852

The three commisioners of the general board of health forced to resign

1854

Another outbreak of Cholera in London

1854

Florence Nightingale leads a team of nurses at the military hospital in Scutari during the Crimean war

1854 - 1856

General board of health abolished

1858

& Chadwick was not appointed to any other official position.

The General Medical act announced that all qualified doctors had to be registered

1858

The General Medical act announced that a general medical council had to be set up

1858

The great stink

1858

Plans were already being made for a new sewer system in London. But parliament could not meet due to the great smell from the Thames due to hot weather.

General medical act

1858

The first cottage hospital opening in Sussex

1859

Florence Nightingale published her 'Notes on Nursing'

1859

Florence Nightingale was influential in establishing a training school for midwives at King's College Hospital, London

1861

Louis Pasteur published his Germ Theory

1861

Pumping station (part of Joseph Bazalgate's new sewer system) installed in London

1865

Louisa Twining established the workhouse visiting society

1865

Which campaigned for workhouse reform and an improved standard of nursing in the workhouse.

New sewer system for London completed

1865

Sanitary act

1866

Forced all towns to appoint inspectors to check water systems and drainage.

Working class men living in towns get the vote

1867

Orders made that the Poor law unions should join together to build infirmaries that were seperate from the workhouses

1867

They also had a fulltime doctor appointed to them.

The major of Birmingham, Joseph Chamberlain carries out several reforms

Approx. 1870

including the demolition of 40 acres of slum.

Artisans dwelling act

1875

Which gave local authorities power to buy and demolish slum housing.

Robert Koch begins to investigate whether bacteria were linked to diease

1875

Pubic Health act

1875

Parliament began passing more legislation on public health. Which made local councils responsible for insuring that clean water, public toilets, rubbish removal and sewers and drains were provided.

Pasteur intorduces vaccination as a tribute to Jenner's work

1879

Alexander Fleming

1881 - 1955

Robert Koch identifies the microbes causing TB

1882

Robert Koch identifies the micobes causing Cholera

1883

The Birmingham poor law union built a new infirmary with 1,000 beds

1887

X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen

1895

Vaccinations against Typhoid

1896

The Boer War

1899 - 1902

Karl Landsteiner discovered four Blood groups

1901

Midwives Act

1902

All midwives have to be trained and registered.

Scientists discovered X-rays could be used to burn and shrink tumors, leading to radiotherapy and chemotherapy

1902

Liberal reforms

1905 - 1911

Free School meals for Poor Children

1906

Vaccinations against Tubercuiosis

1906

School medical service and health visitors to check on the health of young children

1907

Old age pensions act

1908

Dr Sahachiro Hata from Japan built on the work of Ehrlich, Koch and Behring...

1909

To develop the 606th tested compound into the first Magic Bullet Treatment - Salvarsan 606.

National insurance Act introduced

1911

Free treatment and medicine, limited sick pay and unemployment support for some workers.

Vaccinaitons against Diptheria

1913

The First World War

1914 - 1918

It was discovered that adding Sodium Citrate prevented blood from clotting

1915

but the blood cells soon deteriorated.

Maurice Wilkins

1916 - 2004

Friend of Watson and Crick, awarded a Nobel prize along with them.

Francis Crick

1916 - 2004

New scientific techniques allow blood to be stored for longer periods, establishing blood banks

1916

Women get the vote

1918

Epidemic of Influenza

1918 - 1919

The ministry of health was set up

1919

The nursing act

1919

Rosalind Franklin

1920 - 1958

Vaccinations against Tetanus

1927

James Watson

1928 - Present

Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin whilst working at St Mary's Hospital. London

1928

Fleming's findings on Penicillin published

1929

But he was unable to get any funding.

Microscope invented

1931

Second magic bullet developed by Gerhard Domagk

1932

(The red dye effective against blood poisoning, and Prontosil.

Free milk for poor primary school children introduced

1934

The death of 3,000 children due to diptheria

1938

The Second World War

1939 - 1945

Florey & Chain set up a research team to develop Penicillin

1939

Florey and Chain tested on mice

1940

Florey and Norman Heatley went to the USA to seek funding for their research

1941

at first they were unsuccessful (In June) but in December of that year (when the USA entered the 2nd world war) the USA agreed to fun the mass production of Penicillin.

Florey & Chain conducted tests on a patient

1941

Although it was a miracle drug, there was only a small amount a Penicillin available and the patient died when it ran out.

Mass production of Penicillin

1941

The Beveridge report

1942

Identifies disease as a problem for the government to deal with after the second world war.

Pfizer use a freeze-drying method to develop the Mass production of Penicillin

1944

NHS established

1948

The establishment of the NHS in Britain

1948

Vaccinations against polio

Approx. 1950

Prescription charges introduced

1951

Vaccinations against whooping cough

1952

Watson and Crick identify the Double Helix structure of DNA

1953

The clean air act

1956

Dealt with the problem of smog.

Nobel prize awarded to Watson, Crick and Wilkins

1962

Not awarded to Rosalind Franklin since it is not awarded posthumously, and she had died four years earlier.

Ban on Tobacco advertising

1962

By the Royal College of Physicians.

Vaccinations against measles

1964

Packets of cigarettes have to carry a health warning

1971

Vaccinations against MMR

1988

Human Genome Project Launched

1990

The first breast cancer gene was discovered

1994

Discovery of a gene linked to Parkinson's disease

1995

Creation of Dolly the sheep

1996

Discovery made that stem cells can be used for repairs in the body

1997

A rough draft of the human genome map was produced

1998

Showing the locations of over 30,000 Genes.

Human genome project completed

2003

Ban on most forms of Tobacco advertising

2005

Smoking in public places banned in Scotland

2006

Smoking in public places banned in England and Wales

2007

NHS 60th Anniversary

2008

Vaccinations against cervical cancer

2008