Beginnings of Microbiology

Events

"Little animals" or "animalcules"

1676

Antony Van Leeuwenhoek (Father of Bacteriology and Protozoology) provided descriptions of protozoa, basic types of bacteria, yeasts and algae; observed and described microoorganisms such as bacteria and protozoa as "animalcules"

Small pox vaccination

1796

Edward Jenner created the first scientific small pox vaccination

I. Semmelweis

1850

Ignaz Semmelweis advocated washing hands to stop the spread of disease

Louis Pasteur

1861
  • Father of Medical Microbiology
  • invented the processes of pasteurization, fermentation, and the development of effective vaccines (rabies and anthrax)
  • demonstrated diseases of silkworm was due to a protozoan parasite
  • coined the terms “microbiology”, aerobic, anaerobic
  • disproved the theory of spontaneous generation and supported the Germ Theory of Disease

Tyndallisation

1877

John Tyndall
- discovered highly resistant bacterial structure (endospore)
- Tyndallisation: process for sterilizing substances

Lord Joseph Lister

1878
  • Father of Antiseptic Surgery
  • concluded that wound infections were due to microorganisms

Robert Koch

1881
  • demonstrated role of bacteria in causing disease
  • perfected the technique of isolating bacteria in pure culture
  • 1876: first proof of Germ Theory of Disease with B. anthracis discovery
  • 1881: growth of bacteria on solid media
  • 1882: developed acid-fast Stain

Gram Stain

1884

Christian Gram developed the Gram Stain

Petri Dish

1887

R.J. Petri invented the Petri Dish

Discovery of Viruses

1892

Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovski discovered viruses

Paul Ehrlich

1910

discovered cure for syphilis

Alexander Fleming

1928

discovered penicillin

Sequence DNA

1977

W. Gilbert & F. Sanger developed a method to sequence DNA

Kary Mullis

1983

invented Polymerase Chain Reaction

Microbial genomic sequence

1995

First microbial genomic sequence published (H. influenzae) (TIGR)