Europe was characterized by the feudal system in which there was only a man, and he managed, directed and collected taxes because he had the need to protect farmers.
In 1908 Henri Fayol, enumerated a list of management principles, which included a hierarchical chain of command, a separation of functions, and an emphasis on planning and budgeting.
Henry L. Gantt's charts.
Frederick Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management.
J. Duncan wrote the first college management-textbook.