Globalisation and Educational Leadership

Key Events

Neoliberalism

1938 - Present

First identified in 1938, but more common in political and economic discourse from 70s and 80s
1. The rule of the market
2. Emphasis on the individual
3. Efficiency through competition - outsourcing through competative tendors
4. Cutting expenditure on social services
5. Deregulation
6. Privatization
7. Declining of the concept of a 'public' good and 'the community' - its is the expenditure on social services through the state the infringes on the homo economicus and their economic freedoms
a. Leads to the rise of ngo
Thatcher - there is no such thing as society - only individuals who work towards a society, through the generosity of individuals

History of the Global economy
Old Capitalism
Predicated on:
- The nation-state
- Science and rationality
- Universal secular thought - movement from historical links to work, but ability to move to available work
- Individualism
- Entrenched in colonialism
These were based on European Enlightenment ideals, a modern free market

Post-colonialisation
- Bretton-Woods system - global integration of markets
- Prominence of one power - the US as a supper power, as system that did not rely on colonialism unlike the European super powers of the Enlightenment era
- Global institutions - the World Bank, etc. Largely dominated by the interests of the super powers, eg. The US.
- Keynesian National economic system - recognition of input from national powers, need for stimulus following crises
- Mass consumption and changes in lifestyle

Globalisation of the New Economy
- Destabilized most of these ideas - e.g. Bretton-woods system falls, demise of US as a super power, at least not the only dominant power
- Changed the nature of modes of ownership, production, distribution and consumption
- Oownership across national borders - investing outside your national borders
- Emergence of a knowledge economy
- Multinational corporations - global investors, ownership is distributed
- Relocation of headquarters
Movement to countries where the tax laws were more desirable

Bretton-Woods Conferences

1944

Post-colonialisation
- Bretton-Woods system - global integration of markets
- Prominence of one power - the US as a supper power, as system that did not rely on colonialism unlike the European super powers of the Enlightenment era
- Global institutions - the World Bank, etc. Largely dominated by the interests of the super powers, eg. The US.
- Keynesian National economic system - recognition of input from national powers, need for stimulus following crises
- Mass consumption and changes in lifestyle

Keynesian Economics

1945 - 1973

Neoliberal 'Project' - Chile

1955 - 1990

Faure Report

1972

UNESCO report

Thatcher Prime Ministership

1979 - 1990

Supporters of Milton Friedman and translates his ideas into policies
Work to restructure the state of Chile across neoliberal lines
Pinochet engages in social controls while providing economic freedoms

Post-Fordism

1980 - Present

Fordism: industrial system involved in mass production of standardised good by huge integrated companies, with an emphasis on repetition and specialization

Post Fordism: workers employed on a temporary basis on the basis of need, with emphasis on flexibility and adaptability

In a post-ford world:
- Increased use of technology
- Casualisation of the work force
- Poor benefits by employers
- Decline in union protection
- Disappearance of low skilled jobs
- Individual employment contracts
- frequent changes in career
Outsourcing
- Constant location of production
- Global assemblage of products

Reagan Presidency

1981 - 1989

Supporters of Milton Friedman and translates his ideas into policies
Work to restructure the state of Chile across neoliberal lines
Pinochet engages in social controls while providing economic freedoms

Globalisation

1989 - Present

Fall of the Berlin Wall
Cold War ends
Germany reunited
Velvet Revolution
Poland liberalises its economy
Soviet Union withdraws troops from Afghanistan
dissolving of the Societ Union
Tiananmen Square Massacre
Commercialisation of the Internat
GPS
Walmart opens
FW de Klerk is sworn in as South African PM
Ronald Regan ends his term
Iran issues Fatwa on Salman Rushdie
AMU formed
APEC formed
Chile holds free elections
Walter Sisulu is released
Al Queda cell begins operation in New York
Public recognition of rise in CO2
Gangsta Rap
The Simpsons
same sex relationships legalised in Europe

Globalisation of the New Economy
- Destabilized most of these ideas - e.g. Bretton-woods system falls, demise of US as a super power, at least not the only dominant power
- Changed the nature of modes of ownership, production, distribution and consumption
- Oownership across national borders - investing outside your national borders
- Emergence of a knowledge economy
- Multinational corporations - global investors, ownership is distributed
- Relocation of headquarters
- Movement to countries where the tax laws were more desirable

Transnational v. Multinational v. international

Changes in ownership
- State ownership considered ineffective - e.g. QANTAS, railways, Australia Post.
- Stateless finance
- "floating" capital that is constantly moving
- Growth of the finance sector

World Trade
- Freedom of exchange between localities
- Minimum tariff on imports and exports
- Declining role of the state
- Flow of services, as well as goods - implications for education
○ A service based economy
§ Security
§ Financial
§ Tourism
§ Health
§ Transport
§ Communication
§ Entertainment
§ Education
§ Public sector
○ Goods only account for 30% of the global economy, as opposed to 80% in the 1950s and it continues to decline - but not in mainland Asia
○ 70% chance that students will end up in one of these industries, as well as the retail sector
○ Individually driven in the growth of entrepreneurs, and individual consultancy

International division of labour
- Economically global working class
- Movement of people across borders
- Recruitment of highly skilled workers
- Led to growth of international schools - 1 new international school is created in India every week
- A transnational class of teachers has emerged

Development can be characterised as:
- A compression of time and space
- Changing modes and means of regulation
"fast capitalism"

Ideology of globalisation
- Is essentially about liberalisation and global integration of markets based on homo eroticus
- Inevitable and irreversible
- Supra national entities
- Benefit for all
- Morally good consequences in the long run - eventually
- Extends the spread of democracy everywhere
- The "only successful utopia"?
- Has it moved from an ideology to part of the imaginary?
- Neoliberal interpretation of globalisation has become part of the imaginary, the way in which we view the world and the outcomes of globalisation

Washington Consensus

1991

○ ensuring that communities who contribute to overseas aid were convinced it was legitimate, that it does have an effect, as a way to respond to the idea that aid was not being used appropriately

Delors Report

1996

UNESCO Report

First PISA assessment

2000

PISA to test Global Competence

2018

Theorists

John Dewey

1916

Aims of education cannot be found outside the activity of education; they are located within the educational act itself. An aim therefore should be a natural outgrowth of the existing conditions and should be formed in the process of realising it. It should "enable individuals to continue their education". - the object and reward of learning is continued capacity for growth.

The Aims of Education, A N Whitehead

1927

educational aims need to be derived from our theoretical assumptions about the nature of knowledge and its transmission, human nature and learning. Education should actively, "utilise the knowledge and skills that were taught to students to a particular end", of "producing men who possess both culture and expert knowledge in some special direction" and that it should, "impart an intimate sense for the power and beauty of ideas coupled with structure for ideas together with a particular body of knowledge, which has peculiar reference to the life of the being possessing it" (pg. 10).

P Friere

1967

Education should help students question and challenge domination and the beliefs and practices that dominate... helping students achieve critical consciousness. Teachers should lead students to question ideologies and practices that the students themselves consider oppressive and encourage liberators collective and individual responses to the actual conditions of their own lives - Pedagogy of the Oppressed.

E Durkheim

1972

educational aims should reflect underlying processes in society because an educational system is a construct built by society which naturally seeks to reproduce its collectively held values, beliefs, norms, and conditions through its institutions. Educational systems thus contain the imprint of past stages in the development of a society, even as as each era seeks to develop that imprint in its own terms. - select writings

Edward Said 'Orientalism'

1978

Harvey

Approx. 1990

Condition of Postmodernity - flexible accumulation to post Fordism, distributed not centralised production
- Technological innovations and connectivity allow for flexible modes of work
- International competition based on where production is the cheapest
- Heightened social tension between those inside and outside of privileged jobs
Post-fordist modes of work

Appadurai

1990

Modernity at Large (1996)
- Ethnoscapes, mediascapes, technoscapes, financescapes, ideoscapes (PISA represents what education can and should be)
- ie money is moving but people are not necessarily moving alongside it - a disjuncture
Culture v. cultural

Giddens

Approx. 1991

'modernity' wys of life emerging from 17th century Europe, globalisation has intensified and problematised modernity, issues of identity and culture, economic relations and political possibilities.

Sasson

1991
  • Global hubs - Tokyo, New York and London due to the assendence of information technologies and liquidity of capital
    • An increasingly internalised flow of work that is not constrained by the inter-city state
    • Global cities that are more a like - e.g. Tokyo and London have more in common than London and Manchester, etc. as they are global command centers with more cities aspiring to be so - Singapore, Abu-Dhabi Represented by changes to the economy

Robertson

1992

Homogenisation of culture?
ecounter each other across cultural differences
'glocal'

Fukuyama

1992
  • The end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the triumph of capitalism and Western liberal democracy If history about the conflict of ideas and the struggle over resources, then this would be the end of history "as such"

Huntington

1993
  • Inevitability of instability around cultural rifts between civilisation The West will fall of the do not recognise the "irreconcilable" nature of cultural tensions
  • World politics is entering a new phase, in which the great division among human kind and the dominating source of international conflict will be cultural - not political or economic
  • Post-Cold War conflict world would occur most frequently and violently along cultural (often civilizational, e.g. Wester, Islamic, Sinic, Hindu, etc.) instead of ideological lines, as under the Cold War and the bulk of the 20th century. This cultural organizational better describes the world than the classical notion of variegated sovereign states.
  • Cultural populations are spread, less incentives to fight along territorial lines To understand conflict in our age and in the future, cultural rigts must be understood, and culture (instead the state) must be accepted as the locus of war. Thus, he warned that Western nations may lose their predominance if they fail to recognize the irreconcilable nature of this brewing tension.

Drucker

1993
  • Introduction of the idea of the 'knowledge worker' and the death of the blue collar worker
    • Profit is not necessarily the primary goal but purely for existence and sustainability
    • Privatization from within - outsourcing labour - public private partnerships in schools? NGOs play an important role - they are the result of outsourcing work from the government

Falk

1993

Globalisation from above - neoliberal interests driven by corporate transnationals
Globalisation from below - global social movements aiming for justice and democracy

Martha Nussbaum

1994

With our connections to the world growing stronger, we should distrust conventional patriotism as a parochial ideal, and indeed see ourselves first of all as citizens of the world. Citizen of the world does not need to give up local identifications… which can be a source of great richness in life… think of ourselves… as surrounded by a series of concentric circles… outside all the circles is the largest one… humanity as a whole. This means students must learn and recognise humanity where they encounter it… learn enough about the difference to recognise common aims, aspirations and values. Through cosmopolitan education, we learn more about ourselves: make headway solving problems that require international cooperation, recognize moral obligations to the rest of the world; and make a consistent and coherent argument based on disctions we are prepared to defend.

Benjamin Barber

1995

McWorld vs. Jihad
The two axial principals of our age - tribalism and globalism - clash at every point except one: they may both be threatening democracy
McWorld - the ever-expanding service sector of the international economy, especially as it manifests itself in what Barber calls the infotainment telesector
Jihad - moving beyond its strictly Islamic meaning, Barber understands it as an effort by a parochial community to protect itself from the cosmopolitan, universal standards of the West. It is a metaphor for "opposition to modernity".

Ohmae

1995
  • Increasing irrelevance of the nation state

Held and McGrew

2000

Globalists - the world is radically different as a result of a globalisation
Skeptics - maintain that while some change has occurred, there is nothing new in kind, only in scale
Transformationaists - a "middle" person that indicates forms of economic life, cultural practices and politics are changing but in an uneven and contrextually specific fashion

Neoliberalism and Higher Education: The Australian Case

2013

Raewyn Connell, University of Sydney
- academics became competitors, no longer colleagues
- university fees were reintroduced, with federal funding for universities dropping from 90% to 5%
- high fees for international students, seen as an export service industry
- change from a traditional hierarchy to a corporate structure
- emergence of the group of 8
- increase in casual labour
- rising class numbers
- rise of "high-economic pay off" degrees
- accountability through research data
- standardised curriculums to be competitive
- neocolonial effect of 'gold standard' in education, e.g. ivy leagues, league tables
- access to privileged education
- intellectual property regimes

Theories

Australian Education Policies

University feeds abolished

1974

HECS introduced

1989

Universities, however, could charge full fee paying places.

The Hobart Declaration

1989

The Hobart Declaration sets out an agreement of 10 national goals for schooling

National Statements and Profiles

1991 - 1993

Project was finalised but compulsory adoption was rejected.

Group of 8 Formation

1999

AusVELS

2006 - 2016

National Partnership Agreement on Skills Reform

2008 - Present

Australia has been active on the skills agenda (see Spotlight 2). The National Partnership Agreement on
Skills Reform (2008, renewed in 2012) details national reforms, including a new entitlement to a subsidised
training place for up to the first Certificate III qualification and income-contingent loans for Diploma and Advanced
Diploma qualifications. The National Agreement for Skills and Workforce Development commits Commonwealth1
and state and territory governments to addressing access and social inclusion issues through collaborative action
in skills. The National Foundation Skills Strategy for Adults (2012) aims to help working age Australians increase
their English language, literacy and numeracy skills for improved economic and social participation.

Smarter Schools Program

2008

The Smarter Schools National Partnerships (2008) are part of a funding approach that engages all school
systems (including the non-government sector) in partnerships to improve educational outcomes for all students,
particularly disadvantaged students. The partnerships focus on raising literacy and numeracy outcomes (until
2012), improving teacher quality (until 2012), and addressing educational disadvantage associated with socioeconomically
disadvantaged school communities (until 2015). Over 2 500 Australian schools in both government
and non-government sectors participate in these national partnerships.

Melbourne Declaration

2008

The Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians, agreed by Australian education
ministers in 2008, sets the direction of education for the next ten years. Its objectives include supporting quality
teaching and school leadership, supporting education at different levels, promoting a quality national curriculum
and assessment, improving outcomes for indigenous and disadvantaged youth, and improving accountability and
transparency.
To set a national vision, the National Education Agreement aims to ensure that all students are engaged in
schooling, to help raise student achievement, and to reduce inequities in education, especially for students from
Indigenous or socio-economically disadvantaged status. It is further developed through National Partnership
Agreements which define objectives, outputs and milestones related to delivery of specific strategies and policies.
In 2011, two new national regulators were established at the tertiary level: the Australian Skills Quality
Authority (ASQA) for VET and the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA) for higher
education. The ASQA seeks greater national consistency and increased rigour in registering training providers,
accrediting courses and monitoring the quality of the system. The TEQSA aims to ensure that students receive
high-quality education at any higher education institution.

ACARA established

2008

Established under an act of Parliament
2010 - Framework for English, Maths, Science and History published

Australian Apprenticeships Access Programs

2009 - 2020

The Australian Apprenticeships
Access Program provides pre-vocational training linked to an apprenticeship pathway for vulnerable jobseekers.
Mentoring programmes are also being developed which aim to increase completions.
In addition to the above VET targets, the Australian Government has also set two national targets for higher
education:
 Attainment: by 2025, 40% of all 25-34 year olds will have a qualification at bachelor level or higher
 Participation: by 2020, 20% of higher education enrolments at undergraduate level will be people from
low socio-economic status.

National Partnership on youth Attainment and Transitions

2009

The National Partnership on Youth Attainment and Transitions (2009) aims to retain youth in education, and
to improve their transition to further education, training or employment to align to the Council of Australian
Governments' goal of a 90% upper secondary (Year 12 equivalent) attainment rate by 2015. It clarifies actors'
responsibilities to achieve targets and provides funding to programmes related to student engagement, attainment
and transition.

National Partnership on Improving Teacher Quality

2009 - 2013

The National Partnership on Improving Teacher Quality (2009-13) provides funding (AUD 550 million) to
states and territories to attract the best graduates through additional pathways into teaching, improving the quality
of teacher training in partnership with universities, ensuring national consistency in the registration of teachers to
support better mobility within the teaching force, enhancing their skills and knowledge through better performance
management and professional learning, and retaining the best teachers through better rewards for teachers and
leaders in remote areas and hard-to-staff schools.

National Early Childhood Development Strategy

2009

 strengthen universal maternal, child and family health services
 provide support for vulnerable children
 engage parents and the community in understanding the importance of early childhood development
 improve early childhood infrastructure
 strengthen the workforce across early childhood development and family support services
 build better information and a solid evidence base.
The strategy includes the following initiatives:
 The National Partnership on Early Childhood Education aims to ensure universal access to quality
early childhood education, delivered by university-trained early childhood teachers, for 15 hours a
week, 40 weeks a year.
 The National Quality Framework for Early Childhood Education and Care (NQF) (2009) aims to raise
quality and consistency in education and care services. The NQF now applies to long-day care, family
day care, care outside of school hours, and preschools/kindergartens.
 The National Partnership Agreement for Indigenous Early Childhood Development targets early
learning, support for Indigenous families, and improved health for mothers and their children. As part of
the agreement, a network of 38 Children and Family Centres is being established, offering integrated
early childhood and parenting services. The first centre opened in 2011, and all centres are on track to
be established by 2014.

Taken from OECD Australia Policy Outlook 2013

Gonski Report

2010

MySchool

2010

The website, which will be
expanded over time, provides for the first time a wide range of information on Australian schools, the context in
which schools operate, their capacities, and student outcomes. Since its launch, the website has been updated
annually to provide more detailed information, including 2010 data on school funding, four-year results of student
performance in literacy and numeracy in the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (and the
gains made by students over a two-year period), as well as VET information (for secondary schools) on enrolment
and completion by level and industry area. Updates are planned to continue on an annual basis

Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership

2010

Australia has taken actions to strengthen the teaching and school leadership profession. The Australian
Institute for Teaching and School Leadership was established in 2010 and has developed national approaches to
build capacity in this area.
Development of National Teaching Standards, heavily developed and used by NSW.

Implementing:
The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (2010) comprises seven standards in four career
stages (graduate, proficient, highly accomplished and lead teacher) and three domains (professional knowledge,
practice and engagement).
The Australian Professional Standards for Principals is based on three leadership requirements that
principals draw upon within five areas of professional practice: leading teaching and learning; developing self and
others; leading improvement, innovation and change; leading the management of the school; and engaging and
working with the community.

Australian Qualifications Framework

2011

The Australian Qualifications Framework (2011) is the national policy for regulated qualifications, supporting
the development of pathways that assist people to move between different education and training sectors and
between those sectors and the labour market.

Advancing Quality in Higher Education

2012 - 2014

The Advancing Quality in Higher Education plan (2012-14) introduces various performance measurement
initiatives to improve teaching and learning in higher education. The Higher Education Participation and
Partnerships Program provides additional funding to help universities attract, support, and retain students from
disadvantaged backgrounds. These students may receive financial support through income support grants for
eligible students and income contingent loans available to all students.

Australian Workforce and Productivity Agency

2012

The Australian Workforce and Productivity Agency (2012) provides independent advice on skill needs in the
Australian economy and on how to direct skills investment to improve productivity.

MySkills and MyUniversity

2012

Australia in the Asian Century - The Henry Review

2012

Victorian Curriculum

2016 - Present

Australian Education Ministers

John Dawkins

27 July 1987 - 27 December 1991

John Dawkins was the Labor Party minister who took over the Education portfolio in 1987, and shifted policy dramatically away from nation-building and social equity towards human-capital formation and neoliberal competition.

http://www.isa-sociology.org/universities-in-crisis/?p=994

Kim Beazley

Dec 28, 1991 - 23 December 1993

Simon Crean

Dec 24, 1993 - 11 March 1996

Amanda Vanstone

Mar 12, 1996 - 9 October 1997

David Kemp

Oct 10, 1997 - 26 November 2001

Brendan Nelson

Nov 27, 2001 - 27 January 2006

development of ideas for National Teaching Standards and a National Curriculum

Julie Bishop

27 January 2006 - 3 December 2007

Julia Gillard

3 December 2007 - 28 June 2010

window of opportunity where all states were Labor Governments

Simon Crean

28 June 2010 - 14 September 2010

Peter Garrett

14 September 2010 - 1 July 2013

Minister for Education

Bill Shorten

1 July 2013 - 13 September 2013

Minister for Education

Christopher Pyne

13 September 2013 - 18 September 2015

Minister for Education

Simon Birmingham

21 September 2015 - Present

Minister for Education