Reputed to be the most significant court decision affecting language minority students after Lau. In responding to the plaintiffs' claim that Raymondville, Texas Independent School District's language remediation programs violated the Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA) of 1974, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals formulated a set of basic standards to determine school district compliance with EEOA.
The "Castañeda test" includes the following criteria:
1. Theory: The school must pursue a program based on an educational theory recognized as sound or, at least, as a legitimate experimental strategy
2. Practice: The school must actually implement the program with instructional practices, resources, and personnel necessary to transfer theory to reality
3. Results: The school must not persist in a program that fails to produce results.