Ancient Christianity

Major Theological developments and Heretical Formations

Pre-Church period

30 AD - 100 AD

Life of Justin the Martyr

100 - 165

Life of Valentinus

100 - 200

Life of Polycarp

101 - 200

Institutionalization and Persecution

0101 - 250

Marcion excommunicated

144

Gnostic controversy

150 - 250

Life of Clement of Alexandria

150 AD - 211 AD

Peter+Paul monuments erected

160

Criticism of Celcus the Platonist

177

Christians martyred in Carthage

180

Iraneus writes against gnosticism

180 AD

Montanicism

Approx. 180 - Approx. 220

Life of Origen

185 - 254

Tertullian writes Apology

197

Perpetua and Felicitas Martyred

202

Origen goes to Athens

229

Life of Arius

250 - 336

Decius issues edict requiring sacrifice

250 AD

Rise to Dominance

0251 - 350

Monarchian Controversy

Approx. 260 - Approx. 290

Paul of Samosata condemned at Antioch

268

Life of Athanasius of Alexandria

293 - 373

Arian Controversy

300 - 381

Diocletian persecution

303 AD

Edict of Milan

313 AD

Council of Arles

314 AD

Constantine closes courts on Sunday

321

Constantine's victory at Bosphorus

324

Council of Nicaea

325 AD

Life of Basil the Great

329 - 379

Life of Gregory of Nazianus

330 AD - 389 AD

Life of Gregory of Nyssa

335 AD - 394 AD

Constantine baptized

337

Synod at Arles

353

Augustine

354 AD - 430 AD

Epiphanius writes attack on Origen

375

Life of Nestorius

375 AD - 541 AD

Augustine converts

386 AD

Donatism Banned

412 AD

Cyril writes letter attacking Nestorius

428

Council of Ephesus

431

Council of Chalcedon

451 A.D.

Relationship with Jews

Christianity as predominantly Jewish

30 AD - 70 AD

Fall of Jerusalem

70 AD

Hadrian excludes Jews from Jerusalem

135

Marcion repudiates Old Testament

Approx. 180

Origen defends Old Testament

220

Constantine changes date of Easter from Passover

Approx. 325

Callinicum synagogue destroyed by Christians

388 AD

Riots against Jews in Alexandria

414 - 418

Emperors

Augustus

27 BC - 14 AD

Tiberius

14 AD - 37 AD

Caligula

37 AD - 41 AD

Claudius

41 AD - 54 AD

Nero

0055 - 68 AD

Year of four emperors

69 AD

Vespasian

69 AD - 79 AD

Titus

79 AD - 81 AD

Domitian

81 AD - 96 AD

Nerva

96 AD - 98 AD

Trajan

98 AD - 117 AD

Hadrian

117 AD - 138 AD

Antoninus Pius

138 AD - 161 AD

Marcus Aurelius

161 AD - 180 AD

Lucius Verus

161 AD - 169 AD

Commodus

177 AD - 192 AD

Year of Five Emperors

193 AD

Septimius Severus

193 AD - 211 AD

Caracalla

198 AD - 217 AD

Geta

209 AD - 211 AD

Macrinus

217 AD - 218 AD

Elagabalus

218 AD - 222 AD

Severus Alexander reigns

222 AD - 235 AD

Crisis of Third Century

235 AD - 238 AD

Philip i

244 AD - 249 AD

Trajan Decius

249 AD - 251 AD

Hostilian-Aemilian

251 AD - 253 AD

Valerian

253 AD - 260 AD

Gallienus

253 AD - 268 AD

Claudius Gothicus

268 AD - 270 AD

Quintillus-Florian

270 AD - 276 AD

Probus

276 AD - 282 AD

Carus-Carinus

282 AD - 285 AD

Diocletian

284 AD - 305 AD

Maximian

286 AD - 305 AD

Constantius i

305 - 306

Galerius

305 AD - 311 AD

Severus

306 AD - 307 AD

Constantine

306 AD - 337 AD

Maxentius

306 AD - 312 AD

Licinius i and Valerius

308 AD - 324 AD

Maximinus ii

311 AD - 313 AD

Constantine ii

337 AD - 340 AD

Vetranio

350 ad

Julian

361 AD - 363 AD

Jovian

363 AD - 364 AD

Valentinian I

364 ad - 375 ad

Valens

364 AD - 378 AD

Gratian

367 AD - 383 AD

Valentinian ll

375 AD - 392 AD

Theodosius l

379 AD - 395 AD

Arcadius

383 AD - 408 AD

Theodosius ll

402 AD - 450 AD

Marcian

450 AD - 457 AD

Leo l

457 AD - 474 AD

Zeno

474 AD - 491 AD

Anastasius l

491 AD - 518 AD

Christian Worship

Worship mainly in private homes

Approx. 30 AD - Approx. 300 AD

Eucharistic Meal discontinued

Approx. 80 AD - 120 AD

Didache

90 AD - 150 AD

Justin's Apology adds on to Didache

Approx. 160

Tertullian's De Baptismo

Approx. 160 AD

Sunday celebration of Pascha becomes normative

Approx. 200

Councils of Carthage rule on re-baptism

220 AD - 256 AD

Church worship becomes common

Approx. 0301 - Approx. 500 AD

Council of Constantinople, Nicene Creed fully adopted

381 AD

Classic rites start to emerge

Approx. 480 AD