Period 6 Timeline

Events

Civil disobedience movement in India (Gandhi)

1893 - 1931

The civil disobedience movement took place in india under the leadership of Gandhi who inspired the indian people to protest nonviolently. The most notable act involved a British law against indians producing their own salt, because England taxed salt. As a n act of disobedience Gandhi planed to travel to the ocean and make salt. He walked there, starting with only 78 followers and by the time he got there he had gain thousand of followers all participating in the civil disobedience. This tactic actually proved to be better than if they had used violence because it appealed to the morals of their mother country when the indians were treated cruelly when not being violent. Through the civil disobedience they were able to gain independence in 1947. This relates to key concept 6.2.

World War 1

1914 - 1918

World War 1 was a devastating war that resulted from the twisted alliances and counties eagerness to get involved in a war to show off their power. Counties like England and Germany were both much to excited to get a chance to show the world how powerful they were. They had both been using nationalism and building up their navies and militaries to an extreme size, along with researching new technologies that could be used as weapons in the war. So, as soon as a conflict came up that could mean there was a chance for war they jumped on it. They never thought of the consequences the war might have like the loss of life on both sides and the destruction of their cities. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

1914

The assassination of Francis Ferdinand was the spark that started World War 1. After he was killed, by being shot while located in Sarajevo, a city in Bosnia. Austria-Hungary then blamed the Serbian government for the attack and constructed some organized demand of what Serbia had to do in order to not have war. Though Serbia agreed to every condition except one they still ended up going to war. Serbia was backed up by Russia and Russia was allied with France and Great Britain, Austria-Hungary was allied with Germany. So as a result of this one man assassination, a global war came to be in only a matter of weeks. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Japan makes Twenty-one Demands on China

1915

The Twenty one demands on China, were a set of organized demands thats purpose was to giving Japan special privileges in China. These demands would extend Japanese control much further into Manchuria and into the Chinese economy. As a result of the Manchuria actions the Chinese answered these demands by boycotting Japanese goods and the U.S and Britain did not trust Japan as a partner any longer. So, the U.S and Britain forced the Japanese to drop the fifth set of demands that would give them control of the Chinese economy, however every other demand was met and signed over to the Japanese later on. Manchuria relates to key concept 6.2 and 6.3.

Bolshevik Revolution

1917 - 1918

The Bolshevik revolution happened in the after math of the February revolution when the party leader of the bolsheviks called Vladimir Lenin took over the government in a coup. After this, they formed a new government with lenin at the head, working as the first Marxist dictator of the country and he made Russia the first Marxist country in the world. This new type of thinking would lead to the idea of communism, which would later effect global politics and people acrossed the wold in very extreme ways. This relates to key concept 6.3.

Mussolini launches fascist movement in Italy

1922

The Fascist movement began when Mussolini founded the Fascist party, in 1924 they took over the government and were asked by the previous king to form a new and better government. They did form a new government which originally had a prime minister and three fascist cabinets. However later on Mussolini became the dictator. This Fascism did not allow people to create new parties and supported the idea that all citizens were servants of the state and should do anything they can to improve the condition to the state. Fascism tend to asked people to solve a problem by facing it as a whole, and having them al at once comply. It was a new way to unite people under one idea. This relates to key concept 6.3.

Ataturk proclaims Republic of Turkey

1923

Ataturk was an army officer who founded the Republic of Turkey and also served as the first president of Turkey until his death in 1938. During this time he rapidly westernized the government and law code. He also tried to unify the people better by taking Islam out of public life to make it less extreme. He closed all religious courts and schools, banned the wearing of headscarves, lifted the ban on alcohol and adopted the gregorian calendar in place of the islamic one, changed the arabic alphabet to the roman one, made Sunday a rest day instead of Friday, and forbade the wearing of fez hats. This relates to key concept 6.3.

First Soviet Five-Year Plan

1928 - 1932

The Soviet's "Five year plan" was a plan that intended to modernize Russia so it would be able to compete more effectively with other countries. Headed by Joseph Stalin, this plan sought to majorly industrialize Russia and also increase its agricultural production. Stalin set extremely high goals for the improvement of the specific industries he targeted. He justified these goals by saying that if these goals were not reached Russia would never be able to rival the major European powers. As a result people worked very hard and organizers set quotas for different factories. Factories that did not meet quotas were criticized and publicly humiliated. People who seemed to not work as hard as others were accused of being against the Five year plan and shot. Though the five year plan was brutal it did succeed in industrializing Russia and helping it become another major world power. This relates to key concept 6.3.

US stock market crash

1929

The Stock market Crash in 1929 happened because many people believed that the stock market was a one way bet because of the economy at the time. People also became relatively careless in with their money and took out many loans that they could not necessarily pay back. Once people began to fall into debt they started desperately trying to sell their shares and pay their debts. This all happened to many people at the sam time and resulted in the Crash and the depression that lasted a decade. The effects of this depression could be felt by all the countries in the world and by the people effected by it who could not find work or pay for food. This relates to key concept 6.1 and 6.3.

Hitler is ruler in Germany

1933 - 1945

Hitler was one of the most important leaders in world war two, because he basically started the war itself, and is credited with getting Germany out of the depression. He blamed jewish people for the problems in the government and took away their citizenship. Also he increased employment rates by forcing people to do jobs assigned to them by the government. He turned Germany into a fascist country in order to maintain order and militarize. Many people also believe that Hitler started world War two when he invaded Poland. He also caused a mass genocide when he brought all the jewish people to concentration camps to work under horrific conditions. This relates to key concept 6.2 and 6.3.

Long March by Chinese Communists

1934 - 1935

The long march was a military retreat by the three red armies during the Chinese civil war. It lasted a whole year, and the conditions of the march were horrific. They covered about 8,000 miles and about 1 in 10 people died on the way, they also demanded food from villages they passed and would react violently if they did not get it. Though it was awful one of Chinas most significant leaders would be born out of this long walk and use it as a way to come to power. Mao Zedong who would later take over all of China and use communism to help it gain the ability to become a global power. This relates to key concept 6.2 and 6.3.

Stalin's "Great Purge" in USSR

1936 - 1938

After some major failure that lowered the quality of life in the Soviet Union, Stalin needed people to blame and also greatly feared opposition. During this time people were constantly being accused of plotting against the government and nearly 37% of the government officials that worked with stalin were killed. Some were even put on "Show trials" were they were forced to falsely admit guilt to set examples. Children over 12 were allowed to be executed or sent to labor camps because of accusations. Stalin also used these purges to promote his people to higher positions in the government. It is estimated that millions of people died during this time. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Invasion of China by Japan

1937

While the Chinese were still in a war the Japanese strategically invaded China while they were at a weak point. Because Japan desperately needed more land and natural resources they invaded and occupied Manchuria for a period of time. They did end up giving the people and "independent state" and called it "Manchukuo" however emperor was basically a puppet of the Japanese. Also, when the Chinese pushed the league of nations to intervene, the league asked the Japanese to stop and as a result they left the league of Nations and nothing else was done to stop the invasion. As a result over time much more of China was taken over by the Japanese, but gained back by china at the end of the war. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Cardenas nationalizes oil industry in Mexico

1938

On March 18, 1938, Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas signed an order that take away the assets of nearly all of the foreign oil companies operating in Mexico. After that he created a monopolized oil company that would own all the other oil companies called PEMEX or Petroleos Mexicanos. This would be a state owned Company that prevented any foreign companies from operating in Mexico. The U.S supported Mexico's right to expropriate the companies but demanded proper payment for the property. Numerous conflict came up that resulted in the U.S suspension of purchasing silver from Mexico and still demanding for payment. At the start of world war two Mexico finally payed about 29 billion dollars to make up for the lost property. This relates to key concept 6.2 and 6.1.

World War II

1939 - 1945

World War two was the result of few countries that had been devastated by the previous World War one rising and trying to take power over the world again. Hitler lead the Germans to try and take over half the world using Fascism to organize and unite the people. Many new types of government came out of and caused this war like Communism and also fascism. This war also caused major conflict between the Communist people and Capitalist people splitting the world into three groups. Countries that were Communist, countries that were capitalist, and countries that remained neutral. This is a split that is here to this day and stayed very extreme until the fall of the Soviet union. World War two caused many global conflicts even after it was over.

Establishment of United Nations

1945

Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagaski

1945

As a response the the bombings at pearl harbor and in an effort to end World War two, the Americans Bombed the two Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagaski in 1945. They killed over 100,000 instantly and killed thousands more through radiation poisoning after the bomb went off. Also, even people that got a low dose of radiation almost always get cancer at some point in their lives, which also heightened the death toll as a result of the bombings. On a more positive note, the bombings did cause the Japanese to submit and therefor world war two came to a slow stop. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Partition of India

1947

The partition of India was when the country actually split into two because of major conflicting views between Muslim and Hindu parties. The muslim groups both felt that they would not be represented properly living in a society with split religions and religious discrimination. Violence also broke out between the two groups when rioting. This disunity caused one of the biggest migration the world has ever seen around ten million people either left Pakistan and when to india or left india and moved to Pakistan. The migrant walked in two major lines each going opposite directions. Often, fights would break out along the roads to migration and many dies on the way. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Creation of Israel

1948

In 1948 Jewish Agency Chairman David Ben-Gurion proclaims the State of Israel, establishing the first Jewish state in 2,000 years. Later in the evening after the announcement was made Egypt sent an air assault against Israel that evening. Though some parts of the world did not agree with the creation of Israel many did, celebration broke out when Israelis received word that the U.S had recognized Israel as a country. However, the Joy would not last because in the following years Israel would have to deal with numerous wars and attacks from countries that had not wanted it creation. Israel is still facing many of these political problems to this day. This relates to key concept 6.2 and 6.3.

Apartheid in South Africa

1948 - 1994

The Apartheid in South Africa represented laws that discriminated between whites and africans and also took away rights of the Africans. This forced non-white citizens to live in places separate than the whites, use separate public facilities and have limited contact. They were also not allowed to marry out of their race. While the majority of the population was african opposed these rules they stayed in place for about fifty years. In 1994, because of pressure from other parts of the world because of violence against the africans, South Africa was forced to go through reform. A new constitution was written and elections took place later that year with the majority of africans finally able to vote. this relates to key concept 6.2.

Establishment of People's Republic of China

1949

Map Zedong Formally announced the formation of the peoples republic of China in 1949. After, Mao Zedong gave out land more fairly and enforce a communist government. He also got rid of all the classes and After this Mao took over the government and began making major changes and desperately tried to industrialize China. Through numerous plans and ideas for ways to succeed in a global market Mao did improve china and industrialized it but, in doing so he lost a lot of life. Also, no person was allowed to oppose Mao in any way or even question him. He was a dictator that did many good things for china but with to much of a cost. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Korean War

1950 - 1953

The Korean war was yet another result of the Cold war between the Soviet Union and the U.S. The war had started out as a defensive war thats purpose was to push North Korea out of the south however president Truman announced newly that they would be "Liberating the Northern Koreans" from communist hold. This inspired troops and they got all the land back from the northerners and began to cross the 38th parallel. But once that happened the Chinese began to feel threatened and worried they would loose some of their land. At that they informed the U.S that if they continued their would be a War. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

The Vietnam war was the result of the U.S fearing the spread of communism. The U.S had been in the cold war with Russia for some time at the start of the Vietnam war and wanted to prevent it from getting anymore global support. Also, the U.S believed in the Domino theory, that if one country crossed over to Communism then the one bordering it would to and then it would continue exponentially until Communism had the power to over take the U.S and other capitalist countries. So they felt it was very necessary to prevent Vietnam from being communist. During this war they also used chemical weapons such as agent orange and other forms of chemical warfare. However, they did not know the side effects that the Chemicals had, they gave the Vietnamese major birth defects for people who had been exposed to the chemical. This relates to key concept 6.1 and 6.2.

Great leap forward in China

1958 - 1961

The Great leap forward was a time in China were the Chinese sought to increase their industrialization immensely and modernize Chinas economy. Headed by Mao Zedong they were able to do that, by using major propaganda to inspire long work hours and hard work. However, though the production continued to rise at amazing rates that had never been seen before the people suffered because of it. During this increase their was famine, people were over worked and under paid, and around 20 million people were killed because of this. Though it was at a great price the great leap forward had definitely increased production and had started China off as a industrial country. This relates to key concept 6.3.

Castro comes to power in Cuba

1959

The Cuban leader Castro was known for increasing literacy rates in Cuba, unifying his people better, trying to decrease racism, nationalizing all U.S companies. However, he is also very well known for the Cuban missile crisis that took place between Cuba, Russia, and the United States. In 1961 Castro declared himself a Marxist-leninist and they had become very dependent on the Soviet union economically and politically. Later in 1962 the U.S found out that the Soviet union was storing nuclear missiles in Cuba, just a little ways away from Florida. The U.S and the Soviet Union came to the agreement that the Soviet Union would take the weapons out of Cuba if the U.S would not attack it again and take its Weapons out of Turkey. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Construction of Berlin Wall

1961

The construction of the Berlin Wall took place to separate east and west Berlin, but more importantly split Europe in two. This was an attempt by the Germans to stop the U.S from Creating West Germany. Also, so many germans were trying to fee east Germany and go to west Germany that it was hurting the german economy very badly. So they built the Berlin wall to prevent people from crossing the border. They used guards to patrol the wall and shot people if they tried to cross over. Even though many precautions were taken to avoid the people from getting over the wall around 5,000 people made it acrossed alive using various escape methods. separate relates to key concept 6.2.

Creation of PLO

1964

The PLO or the Palestine liberation organization was an organization whose goal was the destruction of the countries of Israel. They were a terrorist organization that cause hundreds of causalities on both sides. They were formally recognized by the United Nations as the main representatives of the Palestinian people. After continued Violence between the Palestinians and Israelis "The Declaration of principles" was signed in 1993, however the violence between the people continued. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Revolution in Iran

January 1978 - February 1979

The revolution in Iran was the sparked from the insulting of a well liked religious and political leader named Ruhollah Khomeini. People took to the streets protesting violently against the shah, who assumed the protesting was an international conspiracy against him, allowed the killing of many of the protesters. These protesters were also mostly made up of young people who left their schools to protest. After the violence got out of hand the Shah and his family fled Iran and Khomeini took control over Iran with a massive amount of public support. He declared Iran "the Islamic Republic." However, after he took power he proceeded to take away woman's rights in marriage and make strict dress codes that were enforced by special officers. Sometimes the violence and brutality was worse than it had been with the original Shah. This relates to key concept 6.2.

Collapse of USSR

1991

The fall of the Soviet union had been slowing declining already once a man called Gorbachov came to power. He believed that Russia was a country that did not need complete reformation but just some small changes. He gave people the right to criticize the government and promised he would stop the arms race. He also believed that Russia should try to have good relations with all countries and with the U.S. After that, the countries that the soviet independence controlled began to separate from Russia through many peaceful revolutions. Also, and increasing amount of states declared their independence from Moscow. After a while they had all declared independence and The Soviet Union was left in conflict and the government was overthrown and a new system adopted. This relates to key concepts 6.2 and 6.3.