HIST 1020 Final


Afghanistan fell to British rule

1890 - 1919
  • Prior to: Durrani Empire ruled Afhanistan (Capital: Khandahar)
  • Capital moved to Kabul i 1776

Zionism born in Vienna

  • founded by Theodor Herzl
  • started World Zionist Organization (1st meeting: Basel, Switzerland, 200 people, mostly Jews, 1897)
  • created the Basel Program, which called for the creation of an independent state for Jews in the Promise Land (Palestine)

Qing Dynasty ruled

1900 - 1911

actually started rule in 1644

Jews begin moving to Palestine

  • Palestine was still under Ottoman control

Chinese National Party overthrew Qing Dynasty


Chinese National Party ruled

1912 - 1949
  • AKA Guomindang
  • Led by Sun Yat-sen

African National Congress founded

  • protested early apartheid

- Leader: Nelson Mandela (1918-2013)

Balfour Declaration announced

Nov 1917
  • British government to support the Zionist desire for Jewish state in Palestine
  • Named after Arthur Balfour (British diplomat)
  • set up Great Britain to gain control of Palestine after WWI

Shah Amanullan Khan ruled Afghanistan

1919 - 1929
  • Modernizer
  • pro-advancement and education of women
  • rapid rate of advancement caused rebellions & his removal

Chinese Communist Party created


created by Chen Duxiu and Mao Zedong

Shah Mohammed Zahir ruled Afghanistan

1933 - 1973
  • Enlightened leader who helped to bring stability and prosperity. “Golden Age” for Afg.
  • Modernizer
  • Modernized much slower so people had time to adjust
  • kept Afg. neutral in world politics

Stalin’s Great Purge

1936 - 1938

2nd Sino-Japanese War

1937 - 1945
  • Ended September 1945 because Japan was defeated in WWII.

Chinese Civil War

1945 - 1949
  • After Japanese left, fighting continued between Chinese nationalists and communists
  • Chinese communists won
  • Renamed country People's Republic of China

United Nations formed

Nov 1945
  • started with 50 nations (including USA, USSR, and China)

Eastern European Purges

1947 - 1953
  • Goal: to scare the population & intimidate them to follow the Bolshevik rulers
  • Police methods used by USSR (Cheka and KGB) influenced Eastern European policing; ended in 1953 after Stalin died
  • show trials held after guilty conviction & televised to scare public
  • bogus crimes; guilty confessions given under torture; most were innocent
  • NAMES TO KNOW: Laszlo Rajk & Rudolf Slansky

Resolution 181 announced

Nov 1947
  • AKA United Partition Plan for Palestine
  • called for 2 separate states carved out of the region to keep both groups happy

First Palestinian War

Nov 1947 - Mar 1949
  • Jewish won
  • formed Parliamentary rule (Knesset: Israeli Parliament), multi party rule, but not multi ethnic
  • Palestinians weren’t allowed to vote or run

South African Apartheid

1948 - 1994

read notes about apartheid

Israel became a nation

May 14, 1948

Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act

  • prohibited inter-racial marriage in South Africa

Immorality Act of 1950

  • prohibited sexual relations of people with different skin colors
  • could be arrested and jailed if caught

Population Registration Act of 1950

  • required all people to register with the state according to skin color classifications
  • "blacks" were required to carry Pass Books saying where they could or couldn't go; Pass Books had photo ID and fingerprints of the carrier

Bantu Authorities Act of 1951

  • forced resettlement
  • established homelands, or “Bantustans”, that were independent state units created solely for blacks to be required to live in

Mao's 1st 5 Year Plan

1953 - 1958
  • modeled after Stalin's plans to reap idly industrialize
  • Nationalizing of industry (state owned property/resources)
  • Collectivization (gov't took private farmland, combined them into large plots, and made peasants work them)

Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953

  • Separated amenities such as beaches and swimming pools

Public Safety Act of 1953

  • Gave government power to declare state of emergency if there was protest against Grand Apartheid
  • In that state of emergency, any protesters were punished

Hungarian Revolution

Jun 1956 - Nov 1956
  • Led by Imre Nagy (1896-1958) and the freedom fighters
  • Effort to eliminate single party rule
  • Crushed when USSR sent tanks, arrested and killed Imre Nagy

Mao's 2nd 5 Year Plan

1959 - 1962
  • AKA The Great Leap Forward
  • AKA The Great Leap Famine
  • ended after 4 years because it was such a failure
  • peasants unmotivated to work land that wasn't theirs >> no food >> 30 mil starved to death

Sharpeville Massacre

  • Blacks in Sharpeville stopped carrying their pass books as act of rebellion
  • Government sent troops, led to shooting, leaving 69 dead, 180 wounded, and 18,000 arrested

Nelson Mandela Arrested

  • arrested for protesting
  • sentenced to life imprisonment
  • served 27 years

Belgium gives up control of Rwanda

  • Hutu took over the government and maintained their hatred for the Tutsi (Tutsi were favored by Belgians and had been treated better prior to independence)

Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) Formed

  • try to create an independent Palestinian state for refugees
  • Leader: Yassar Arafat (1929-2004), then Mahmoud Abbas
  • Note: The Palestinians that stayed in the region of Palestine mainly live in the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
  • Israel built walls around these regions “to end/reduce Palestinian violence against Israelis”

Chinese Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1976
  • Aimed to get rid of the "Four Olds" so China could modernize
  • Unofficially used so Mao could eliminate his opposers
  • Assisted by the "Red Guard" (youth who served, carried a "little red book")

Nicolae Ceausescu's Family Policy Campaign in Romania

1966 - Dec 1989
  • Mandated all adult women under 45 to have at least 5 children
  • Made abortion, birth control, and sex education illegal
  • Enforced by Secret Police of Romania (brutal)
  • Women given random gynocological exams
  • “The fetus is the socialist property of the whole society”
  • Had state run orphanages (poorly run)
  • worsened by policy of micro blood transfusions
  • Ceausescu was publicly executed on TV

Plastic People of the Universe

  • Czech band led by Ivan Jirous, nicknamed “Magor”, or blockhead
  • made illegal after Prague Spring was crushed

Prague Spring

  • Effort to eliminate single party rule
  • Led by Alexander Dubcek
  • Squashed by USSR; Dubcek was forced to move to countryside where he had no influence
  • caused dissident movements to break out

Poland workers strike

Dec 1970
  • started after gov't announced they were raising food prices
  • Edvard Gierek, the communist leader of Poland, promised better wages and more consumer goods
  • only was able to increase wages; caused more strikes

Coup d'état Overthrew Zahir


-Zahir was out of the country
- led by Zahir's cousin, Mohammad Daoud Khan, who became ruler

Mohammad Daoud Khan ruled Afghanistan

1973 - 1978
  • Modernizer
  • More radical, thought monarchy was outdated, wanted parliamentary rule with democratic, multi-party government
  • Ended monarchy in 1973. Established Republic

Helsinki Accords Signed

  • International document spelling out human rights, like freedom of speech, etc
  • signed by 35 countries
  • paper commitment didn't translate into reality

Mao Zedong died


Deng Ziaoping replaced Mao

  • Began reforming economy to be more mixed
  • Four Modernizations:
    • Military
    • Agriculture
    • Industry
    • Science/Technology
  • 5th modernization: political

KOR formed

  • committee for the workers’ defense
  • financially supported striking workers in Poland
  • ultimately made the economy worse

Charter 77

Jan 1977
  • dissident movement led by Vaclav Havel
  • reminded people that the gov't wash;t following its promise of the Helsinki Accords
  • declared illegal
  • contributed to the end of single party rule in Czech R.

USSR developed new missile SS-20

  • mobile nuclear missile; harder to track
  • US responded by placing minute men missiles ICBMs through Western Europe and US

PDPA ruled Afghanistan

1978 - 1992
  • Pro-Soviet party; pulled Afg. into the Cold War; received aid from USSR
  • Formed single party authoritarian rule with command economy
  • weren't devout Muslims; didn’t want religious influence in government
  • Pro-Women's rights and education
  • disliked; caused Mujahideen (holy warriors) to form

Saur Revolution

  • the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) overthrew Mohammad Daoud Khan

PDPA leader killed by Mujahideen

Sept 1979
  • caused USSR to invade Afg. in December 1979 (start of the Soviet-Afghan War)

Soviet Afghan War

Sept 1979 - Feb 1989
  • USSR sent aid to PDPA
  • 1980’s: Mujahideen received weapons (Stinger Missile in 1989) from US under Reagan
  • Mikhail Gorbachev took power of USSR in 1985
  • Pulled USSR out in 1989

Solidarity fomed

Sept 1980
  • Gdansk (Polish city) striking workers assembled to form "Solidarity"
  • led by Lech Walesa

General Wojciech Jaruzelski became leader of Poland

Dec 1981
  • established Marshall Rule (aka military rule)
  • arrested many members of Solidarity

“Star Wars Program” Initiated

  • Defense initiative by Ronald Reagan
  • Protective barrier of satellites to detect USSR missiles

Mandela released from prison


Civil War in Afghanistan

1989 - 1992
  • Mujahideen won
  • created Islamic State of Afghanistan
  • Fundamentalist state (not enough for the Taliban)

Tiananmen Square rebellion

Jun 3, 1989 - Jun 4, 1989
  • Students gathered in Tiananmen Square to bring back the Beijing Spring idea of freedom of speech and democracy
  • Government sent tanks in to shut it down; hundreds killed, thousands arrested

End of Cold War

Nov 9, 1989

Rwandan Patriotic Front attempt to overthrow Hutu

  • declared cease fire

Mandela wins Nobel Peace Prize


1st Mulitracial Elections in S. Africa

  • won by Nelson Mandela & African National Congress

Taliban created

  • Based in Khandahar
  • Started Civil War; gained power in 1996

Rwandan President's Plane Shot Down

Apr 1994
  • President was Hutu; Hutu blamed Tutsi; genocide began
  • Hutu tried to wipe out the Tutsi in Rwanda
  • lasted about 100 days; 500,000 Tutsi killed with machetes

Tutsi took over Rwandan Government

Jul 1994
  • marks end of genocide

Taliban ruled Afghanistan

1996 - 2001
  • Created Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (AKA Taliban State)
  • Women’s freedom was taken
  • US attacked the Taliban & asked for Bin Laden after 9/11

Xi Jinping became leader

  • determined to keep mixed economy and single party rule