HIST 1020 Final

Events

Afghanistan fell to British rule

1890 - 1919
  • Prior to: Durrani Empire ruled Afhanistan (Capital: Khandahar)
  • Capital moved to Kabul i 1776

Zionism born in Vienna

1898
  • founded by Theodor Herzl
  • started World Zionist Organization (1st meeting: Basel, Switzerland, 200 people, mostly Jews, 1897)
  • created the Basel Program, which called for the creation of an independent state for Jews in the Promise Land (Palestine)

Qing Dynasty ruled

1900 - 1911

actually started rule in 1644

Jews begin moving to Palestine

1904
  • Palestine was still under Ottoman control

Chinese National Party overthrew Qing Dynasty

1911

Chinese National Party ruled

1912 - 1949
  • AKA Guomindang
  • Led by Sun Yat-sen

African National Congress founded

1912
  • protested early apartheid

- Leader: Nelson Mandela (1918-2013)

Balfour Declaration announced

Nov 1917
  • British government to support the Zionist desire for Jewish state in Palestine
  • Named after Arthur Balfour (British diplomat)
  • set up Great Britain to gain control of Palestine after WWI

Shah Amanullan Khan ruled Afghanistan

1919 - 1929
  • Modernizer
  • pro-advancement and education of women
  • rapid rate of advancement caused rebellions & his removal

Chinese Communist Party created

1921

created by Chen Duxiu and Mao Zedong

Shah Mohammed Zahir ruled Afghanistan

1933 - 1973
  • Enlightened leader who helped to bring stability and prosperity. “Golden Age” for Afg.
  • Modernizer
  • Modernized much slower so people had time to adjust
  • kept Afg. neutral in world politics

Stalin’s Great Purge

1936 - 1938

2nd Sino-Japanese War

1937 - 1945
  • Ended September 1945 because Japan was defeated in WWII.

Chinese Civil War

1945 - 1949
  • After Japanese left, fighting continued between Chinese nationalists and communists
  • Chinese communists won
  • Renamed country People's Republic of China

United Nations formed

Nov 1945
  • started with 50 nations (including USA, USSR, and China)

Eastern European Purges

1947 - 1953
  • Goal: to scare the population & intimidate them to follow the Bolshevik rulers
  • Police methods used by USSR (Cheka and KGB) influenced Eastern European policing; ended in 1953 after Stalin died
  • show trials held after guilty conviction & televised to scare public
  • bogus crimes; guilty confessions given under torture; most were innocent
  • NAMES TO KNOW: Laszlo Rajk & Rudolf Slansky

Resolution 181 announced

Nov 1947
  • AKA United Partition Plan for Palestine
  • called for 2 separate states carved out of the region to keep both groups happy

First Palestinian War

Nov 1947 - Mar 1949
  • Jewish won
  • formed Parliamentary rule (Knesset: Israeli Parliament), multi party rule, but not multi ethnic
  • Palestinians weren’t allowed to vote or run

South African Apartheid

1948 - 1994

read notes about apartheid

Israel became a nation

May 14, 1948

Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act

1949
  • prohibited inter-racial marriage in South Africa

Immorality Act of 1950

1950
  • prohibited sexual relations of people with different skin colors
  • could be arrested and jailed if caught

Population Registration Act of 1950

1950
  • required all people to register with the state according to skin color classifications
  • "blacks" were required to carry Pass Books saying where they could or couldn't go; Pass Books had photo ID and fingerprints of the carrier

Bantu Authorities Act of 1951

1951
  • forced resettlement
  • established homelands, or “Bantustans”, that were independent state units created solely for blacks to be required to live in

Mao's 1st 5 Year Plan

1953 - 1958
  • modeled after Stalin's plans to reap idly industrialize
  • Nationalizing of industry (state owned property/resources)
  • Collectivization (gov't took private farmland, combined them into large plots, and made peasants work them)

Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953

1953
  • Separated amenities such as beaches and swimming pools

Public Safety Act of 1953

1953
  • Gave government power to declare state of emergency if there was protest against Grand Apartheid
  • In that state of emergency, any protesters were punished

Hungarian Revolution

Jun 1956 - Nov 1956
  • Led by Imre Nagy (1896-1958) and the freedom fighters
  • Effort to eliminate single party rule
  • Crushed when USSR sent tanks, arrested and killed Imre Nagy

Mao's 2nd 5 Year Plan

1959 - 1962
  • AKA The Great Leap Forward
  • AKA The Great Leap Famine
  • ended after 4 years because it was such a failure
  • peasants unmotivated to work land that wasn't theirs >> no food >> 30 mil starved to death

Sharpeville Massacre

1960
  • Blacks in Sharpeville stopped carrying their pass books as act of rebellion
  • Government sent troops, led to shooting, leaving 69 dead, 180 wounded, and 18,000 arrested

Nelson Mandela Arrested

1962
  • arrested for protesting
  • sentenced to life imprisonment
  • served 27 years

Belgium gives up control of Rwanda

1962
  • Hutu took over the government and maintained their hatred for the Tutsi (Tutsi were favored by Belgians and had been treated better prior to independence)

Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) Formed

1964
  • try to create an independent Palestinian state for refugees
  • Leader: Yassar Arafat (1929-2004), then Mahmoud Abbas
  • Note: The Palestinians that stayed in the region of Palestine mainly live in the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
  • Israel built walls around these regions “to end/reduce Palestinian violence against Israelis”

Chinese Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1976
  • Aimed to get rid of the "Four Olds" so China could modernize
  • Unofficially used so Mao could eliminate his opposers
  • Assisted by the "Red Guard" (youth who served, carried a "little red book")

Nicolae Ceausescu's Family Policy Campaign in Romania

1966 - Dec 1989
  • Mandated all adult women under 45 to have at least 5 children
  • Made abortion, birth control, and sex education illegal
  • Enforced by Secret Police of Romania (brutal)
  • Women given random gynocological exams
  • “The fetus is the socialist property of the whole society”
  • Had state run orphanages (poorly run)
  • worsened by policy of micro blood transfusions
  • Ceausescu was publicly executed on TV

Plastic People of the Universe

1968
  • Czech band led by Ivan Jirous, nicknamed “Magor”, or blockhead
  • made illegal after Prague Spring was crushed

Prague Spring

1968
  • Effort to eliminate single party rule
  • Led by Alexander Dubcek
  • Squashed by USSR; Dubcek was forced to move to countryside where he had no influence
  • caused dissident movements to break out

Poland workers strike

Dec 1970
  • started after gov't announced they were raising food prices
  • Edvard Gierek, the communist leader of Poland, promised better wages and more consumer goods
  • only was able to increase wages; caused more strikes

Coup d'état Overthrew Zahir

1973

-Zahir was out of the country
- led by Zahir's cousin, Mohammad Daoud Khan, who became ruler

Mohammad Daoud Khan ruled Afghanistan

1973 - 1978
  • Modernizer
  • More radical, thought monarchy was outdated, wanted parliamentary rule with democratic, multi-party government
  • Ended monarchy in 1973. Established Republic

Helsinki Accords Signed

1975
  • International document spelling out human rights, like freedom of speech, etc
  • signed by 35 countries
  • paper commitment didn't translate into reality

Mao Zedong died

1976

Deng Ziaoping replaced Mao

1976
  • Began reforming economy to be more mixed
  • Four Modernizations:
    • Military
    • Agriculture
    • Industry
    • Science/Technology
  • 5th modernization: political

KOR formed

1976
  • committee for the workers’ defense
  • financially supported striking workers in Poland
  • ultimately made the economy worse

Charter 77

Jan 1977
  • dissident movement led by Vaclav Havel
  • reminded people that the gov't wash;t following its promise of the Helsinki Accords
  • declared illegal
  • contributed to the end of single party rule in Czech R.

USSR developed new missile SS-20

1977
  • mobile nuclear missile; harder to track
  • US responded by placing minute men missiles ICBMs through Western Europe and US

PDPA ruled Afghanistan

1978 - 1992
  • Pro-Soviet party; pulled Afg. into the Cold War; received aid from USSR
  • Formed single party authoritarian rule with command economy
  • weren't devout Muslims; didn’t want religious influence in government
  • Pro-Women's rights and education
  • disliked; caused Mujahideen (holy warriors) to form

Saur Revolution

1978
  • the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) overthrew Mohammad Daoud Khan

PDPA leader killed by Mujahideen

Sept 1979
  • caused USSR to invade Afg. in December 1979 (start of the Soviet-Afghan War)

Soviet Afghan War

Sept 1979 - Feb 1989
  • USSR sent aid to PDPA
  • 1980’s: Mujahideen received weapons (Stinger Missile in 1989) from US under Reagan
  • Mikhail Gorbachev took power of USSR in 1985
  • Pulled USSR out in 1989

Solidarity fomed

Sept 1980
  • Gdansk (Polish city) striking workers assembled to form "Solidarity"
  • led by Lech Walesa

General Wojciech Jaruzelski became leader of Poland

Dec 1981
  • established Marshall Rule (aka military rule)
  • arrested many members of Solidarity

“Star Wars Program” Initiated

1983
  • Defense initiative by Ronald Reagan
  • Protective barrier of satellites to detect USSR missiles

Mandela released from prison

1989

Civil War in Afghanistan

1989 - 1992
  • Mujahideen won
  • created Islamic State of Afghanistan
  • Fundamentalist state (not enough for the Taliban)

Tiananmen Square rebellion

Jun 3, 1989 - Jun 4, 1989
  • Students gathered in Tiananmen Square to bring back the Beijing Spring idea of freedom of speech and democracy
  • Government sent tanks in to shut it down; hundreds killed, thousands arrested

End of Cold War

Nov 9, 1989

Rwandan Patriotic Front attempt to overthrow Hutu

1990
  • declared cease fire

Mandela wins Nobel Peace Prize

1993

1st Mulitracial Elections in S. Africa

1994
  • won by Nelson Mandela & African National Congress

Taliban created

1994
  • Based in Khandahar
  • Started Civil War; gained power in 1996

Rwandan President's Plane Shot Down

Apr 1994
  • President was Hutu; Hutu blamed Tutsi; genocide began
  • Hutu tried to wipe out the Tutsi in Rwanda
  • lasted about 100 days; 500,000 Tutsi killed with machetes

Tutsi took over Rwandan Government

Jul 1994
  • marks end of genocide

Taliban ruled Afghanistan

1996 - 2001
  • Created Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (AKA Taliban State)
  • Women’s freedom was taken
  • US attacked the Taliban & asked for Bin Laden after 9/11

Xi Jinping became leader

2012
  • determined to keep mixed economy and single party rule