A series of civil wars to determine which aristocratic faction would dominate the British monarchy
1469 - 1492
Under Ferdiand and Isabella, Spain united many lands and expanded its empire. The monarchs attempted to instill Catholic beliefs, expel Muslims and Jews, and ended up controlling Austriam Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Bohemia, Hungary ....
German Peasants Revolt
German peasants had increasingly worse economic conditions, and they revolted against the Princes after Lutheranism spread and they felt that Luther was calling for action and was an egalitarian. Unfortunately, he was only radical in his religious ideas and supported the Prince's supremacy. The Peasants were shut down.
Anabaptists (believed in baptism as an adult) took control of the city of Munster, and were attacked by Protestants and Catholics (armies) and shunned.
1546 - 1555
War between Charles V, and Protestant princes. Charles and the HRE lost, and were forced to sign the Peace of Augsburg.
Peace of Augsburg
A treaty that allowed German princes to decide what religion their land would practice. Eg, Lutheran prince allows Lutheranism
French Wars of Religion
1562 - 1598
The civil War was fought between Protestants and Catholics. King Henry IV of Navarre became King, and converted from Calvinism to Catholicism.
Battle of Lepanto
Between Spain and the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean. Spain won power, maintained control and military conquests
St. Bartholomews Day
A Massacre in Paris that absolutely decimated Hugenots
1588 - 1609
War between Spain and Britain. Britain was helping Dutch Rebels under Queen Elizabeth, and Britain won, establishing early naval power. The war eventually allowed for the Netherlands to gain independence in 1648.
Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
A War between the HRE and: Bohemia, Denmark, Sweden, France. A fight for Protestantism vs. Catholicism.
English Civil War
1642 - 1648
Peace of Westphalia
Reaffirmed the Treaty of Augsburg. It let MRE maintain political divisions but it didn't have power in German politics/Bohemia. It recognized Calvinism.