Wars and Revolution


Wars of the Roses

1455 - 1485

A series of civil wars to determine which aristocratic faction would dominate the British monarchy


1469 - 1492

Under Ferdiand and Isabella, Spain united many lands and expanded its empire. The monarchs attempted to instill Catholic beliefs, expel Muslims and Jews, and ended up controlling Austriam Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Bohemia, Hungary ....

German Peasants Revolt


German peasants had increasingly worse economic conditions, and they revolted against the Princes after Lutheranism spread and they felt that Luther was calling for action and was an egalitarian. Unfortunately, he was only radical in his religious ideas and supported the Prince's supremacy. The Peasants were shut down.

Anabaptist Takeover


Anabaptists (believed in baptism as an adult) took control of the city of Munster, and were attacked by Protestants and Catholics (armies) and shunned.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1555

War between Charles V, and Protestant princes. Charles and the HRE lost, and were forced to sign the Peace of Augsburg.

Peace of Augsburg


A treaty that allowed German princes to decide what religion their land would practice. Eg, Lutheran prince allows Lutheranism

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

The civil War was fought between Protestants and Catholics. King Henry IV of Navarre became King, and converted from Calvinism to Catholicism.

Battle of Lepanto


Between Spain and the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean. Spain won power, maintained control and military conquests

St. Bartholomews Day


A Massacre in Paris that absolutely decimated Hugenots

Spanish Armada

1588 - 1609

War between Spain and Britain. Britain was helping Dutch Rebels under Queen Elizabeth, and Britain won, establishing early naval power. The war eventually allowed for the Netherlands to gain independence in 1648.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

A War between the HRE and: Bohemia, Denmark, Sweden, France. A fight for Protestantism vs. Catholicism.

English Civil War

1642 - 1648

Peace of Westphalia


Reaffirmed the Treaty of Augsburg. It let MRE maintain political divisions but it didn't have power in German politics/Bohemia. It recognized Calvinism.

Wars of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Treaty of Utrecht


War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Napoleon Wars

1800 - 1815

Greek Revolt

1812 - 1832

Revolutions of 1848


Crimean War

1854 - 1856

Sepoy Rebellion


Wars of Italian Unification

1859 - 1870

Wars of German Unification

1864 - 1871

Fashoda Crisis


Boer War

1899 - 1902

War in Africa

Russo Japanese War

1904 - 1905

World War I

1914 - 1918

Russian Revolution


World War II

1939 - 1945

Cold War

1945 - 1991

Yugoslav Wars

1991 - 1999