HEIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY PROJECT. Based on Takahashi Tomio's "The Classical Polity and Its Frontier," interpreted by Karl Friday.
This second stage covers the time the Hayato remained a foreign people. However, Hayato rulers subordinated themselves to Yamato kings, and Hayato served the court as artisans, singers, dancers, and military guards at the palace.
Great King Yūryaku (pre-tennō system) sent an envoy to the Chinese court describing battles with the Hayato.
This term for the northeastern barbarians was originally written with characters meaning "hairy men." The Yamato changed the characters around 645 to read "quail barbarians." Both were pronounced "emishi." Or possibly "ebisu" or "ezō."
Scattered rebellions and resistance efforts necessitated large scale military pacification campaigns on at least five occasions.
Yamato built stockades (kinohe) and moved cultivators into Emishi territory. The first versions of these stockade residences were built in Echigo 647-8. The stockades outposts sought harmonious coexistence with the Emishi, but their presence payed an important role in transforming Emishi groups into political units.
Despite pockets of resistance, the majority of Hayato in southern Kyūshū are assimilated into the Yamato polity. According to the ritsuryō and commentary, the Hayato are to pay taxes and behave like normal citizens.
Two parts of southeastern Mutsu province were broken off and combined with Hitachi. Yamato also attempted to form two new provinces: Iwaki and Iwashiro. A few years later, the new provinces were abolished and returned to Mutsu.
This attack of a stockade in Mutsu sparked the pacification wars. The outpost was located on the Kitakami River close to where the Emishi had developed territory. ōtomo Surugamaro was sent north to defeat the Emishi, which he did around the Kitakami River.
The Yamato consider its task in subjugating the Emishi formally completed after 811. The enormous financial burden of the wars forced the tennō to re-fcous on administration, not conquest. The Yamato Court worked to integrate the Emishi. Efforts to assimilate the Emishi and establish order would continue until the late Heian Period and beyond.
An Emishi named Iji-no-kimi Atamaro revolts, attacking the newly established Iji Stockade and Taga Stockade. He also attacked Emishi working for the Yamato. This sparks revolts among the Emishi. In 801, Sakanoue Tamuramaro defeated Kitakami River Emishi forces.