1350 - 1550

Trade, Communes, Humanism, Gutenberg printing press, art

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1650

Trade with Indian Ocean and Africa, Portuguese dominance (caravel), Columbian exchange and colonies, Spanish bullion crash, Montaigne and Shakespeare critique

Reformation and Religious War

1500 - 1600

Luther, Habsuburgs, Henry VIII, Council of Trent, Witch hunt

New World View

1540 - 1789

Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, Enlightened Absolutism

Absolutism and Constitutionalism

1589 - 1725

30 years war, Louis XIV and absolutism, Prussia, Austrian Habsburg, Tsars, Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, English Civil War, British Restoration, Constitutional Monarchy in Netherlands

European Expansion

1650 - 1800

Mercantilism, Colonialism, Columbian Exchange, Population boom

Revolution in Politics

1775 - 1815

American Revolution (impact), French Revolution, Napoleon

Industrial and Energy Revolution

1780 - 1850

Factories, and 1st Industrial Rev

Ideologies and Upheavals

1815 - 1850

Liberalism, Nationalism, Romanticism, pre 1848 liberation movements (Greece), Spring of Nations

Emerging Urban Society

1840 - 1900

Public Health (bacterial revolution), Haussman's Paris, middle class and leisure time, Darwin, Realism

Age of Nationalism

1850 - 1914

Napoleon, Italy, Bismarck, Russia modernizes, Socialist International

Age of Anxiety

1900 - 1940

Freud, new Physics, Bauhauss, Mass culture, Nietzsche, stream of consciousness, Great Depression, economic crisis and unemployment

War and Revolution

1914 - 1919

WWI, total war

Dictatorship and WWII

1919 - 1945

Totalitarianism, Fascism, Authoritarianism, Stalin, Lenin, Mussolini, Hitler, Holocaust, Allied victory

Cold War

1945 - 1991

Space race, Consumerism, De-Stalinazation, Decolonization, 2nd Wave feminism, Environmental movement, Detente, Gorbachev, Collapse of Soviet Union

Age of Globalization

1990 - 2016

Econ shock therapy, Digital Age, ethnic diversity, War on Terror, environmental problems, human rights