Believed christianity should be guiding philosophy for direction of daily life

Thomas More


Wrote Utopia, believed cooperation and reason should replace power and fame

Start of the Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

The Protestant Reformation began with Luther’s posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years’ War

Leipzig Debate


Luther denounces authority of popes and councils



Luther publishes four pamphlets and is excommunIcated by the pope

Freedom of the Christian Man


Written by Luther; faith leads to salvation



believed in abolition of images and relics

Peasant Revolt


Luther sides with nobles to suppress rebellion

Charles V leaves Thrown


The Holy Roman Empire

Rome Sacked


End of Renaissance.

Marburg Colloauy


Meeting of Zwingli, Calvin, and anabaptists; couldn’t agree on communion details

Reformation Parliament


Nickname for the Parliament that was called for a 7 year session that began in 1529. During this period, it passed legislation that harassed and placed royal reins on the clergy. This meant that whenever fundamental changes are made in religion, the monarch must consult with and work through Parliament. Henry VIII came to this and asked to be head of church in order to separate legally from his wife.

Lutheranism in Germany


by 1530 Lutheranism is popular in many German States

Act of Supremacy


proclaimed King Henry VIII the supreme leader of the Church of England, which meant that the pope was no longer recognized as having any authority within the country, and all matters of faith, ecclesiastical appointment, and maintenance of ecclesiastical properties were in the hands of the king.



believed in predestination

"Institutes of the Christian Religion"


(1536) book written by John Calvin as an introductory textbook on the Protestant faith for those with some learning already and covered a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty; vigorously attacked the teachings of those Calvin considered unorthodox, particularly Roman Catholicism. Calvin introduces his theory on predestination.

Founding of the Jesuits


IGNATIUS LOYOLA (1 Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.

Institutes of the Christian Religion


John Calvin publishes the French edition of his most followed book.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

a council of three sessions, spread out over eighteen years, with long interruptions due to war, plague and imperial and papal politics. First called by Pope Paul III to reassert church doctrine due to insists by Emperor Charles V and the growing success of the Protestant Reformation. Steps were taken to curtail the selling of church offices and other religious goods. Many bishops who resided in Rome were forced to move to their diocese. Strengthened the authority of local bishops. New rules made that required bishops to preach regularly, be neatly dressed, better educated and active among their parishioners. However, this council reaffirmed the traditional Scholastic education of the clergy (transubstantiation, good works, etc.)

Mary I

1553 - 1558

caused England to move back towards Catholicism

Peace of Augsburg


Protestants given equal rights as christianity

"Index of Forbidden Books"


(1559) Written by Pope Paul IV as part of the Counter-Reformation. It forbade Catholics from reading books considered "harmful" to faith and morals. This indicates the significance of the printing press in disseminating Reformation ideas.

Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Wars of religion in France begin following the end of the long
Habsburg-Valois conflict


1939 - 1945

The star of World War II with the invasion of Poland

Counter Reformation 01545


the response to the Protestant Reformation. Catholic churches willing to reform in order to win back Protestants to their side. Began with the Council of Trent in 1545. The Roman Inquisition was born, in which those who were believed to be heretic were brought in and brutally questioned.