Christopher Colombus "discovers" America


Leonardo da vinci paints Mona Lisa


Start of the European Wars of religion


Henry VIII is excommunicated


Defeat of the Spanish Armada


The Globe theatreis built


Galileo Galilei and heliocentrism


astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center.

The Tempest by William Shakespeare


The English Civil War

1642 - 1651


King Henry VII

1485 - 1509

Henry gained the throne when he defeated and killed Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. The battle ended the War of the Roses, a dispute between the House of Lancaster and the House of York.

Kept England peaceful and brought riches to the crown and country.

King Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Second son of Henry VII. Henry succeeded to the throne because his elder brother Arthur died in 1502. His first wife, Catherine of Aragon, was Arthur's wife.
The best known fact about Henry VIII is that he had six wives!
Argued with the Pope and made himself the head of the new 'Church of England'.

Most school children learn the following rhyme to help them remember the fate of each wife: "Divorced, Beheaded, Died: Divorced, Beheaded, Survived".

King Edward VII

1547 - 1553

Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour.
He was never a healthy King and died aged only 15 years.

Queen Mary I

1553 - 1558

Daughter of Henry VIII and Katharine of Aragón.
Married Philip II of Spain. Wanted to make England Catholic again. Killed many who opposed her which is why she is remembered as Bloody Mary.

Queen Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
During her reign great adventurers discovered many new lands. Fought off the Spanish Armada.
Named James VI of Scotland her heir, uniting the two countries Scotland and England.

Elizabeth I was the last ever Queen of England. From now on the monarch, although living in England, would be known as the Monarch of the United Kingdom.

King James I

1603 - 1625

When James became King of England, he was already a king - King James VI of Scotland. He was the first monarch to rule both countries and the first to call himself 'King of Great Britain'. However it was not until 1707 that an act of Parliament formally brought the two countries together.

James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He had been King of Scotland for twenty-nine years when he acceded to the English throne.

King Charles I

1625 - 1649

Second son of James I.
He was not brought up to be king, but his elder brother, Henry, died of Typhoid at the age of 18.
Married Henrietta Maria of France.
Fought against the Parliament leading to civil war.
Was executed as a result on 30 January 1649.