Unit 6 Theme 3: state-building expansion and conflict

Although India and Africa acquired independence from their colonial powers, conflicts continue to happen in both places. In India, the Partition of India led to the creation of an enemy Pakistan, and in Africa, poverty is still an issue.


Indian independence

1857 - 1947

The Indian independence starts with the establishment of the Indian Congress. Famous figures such as Gandhi participated in this worthy cause. Although many people were killed in the effort, India was able to become a single nation. However, the importance fo India lies in the aftermath of the independence. Because India was a Hindus majority, the Muslim minority were determined to have a place reserved for Muslims. Thus, the Partition of India occurred.

Mao and Chinese Civil War

1927 - 1950

The Chinese Civil War determined the form of government in China. In the 21st century, China is still ruled by the Chinese Communist Party. If the Nationalists had won the war, history would not be the same. Perhaps, China would experience a different form of government under a different leader.

Mukden Incident


The Mukden Incident was Japan's justified excuse to imperialism. This led to the invasion of Manchuria. Its importance can be seen in all the atrocities that the Japanese have committed after the Mukden Incident. This single event led to the death of millions of civilians in China as seen in events like the Nanking Massacre.

The Holocaust

1933 - 1945

The Holocaust is responsible for the death of six million Jews. Its importance does not lie in the fact that Hitler and his accomplices planned this event, but the fact that countries at the time were aware of this event but refused to intervene. Thus, many people died of this tragedy in history.

Rape of Nanjing

1937 - 1938

Not only did the Rape of Nanking trigger a sense of nationalism in China, but also gave the Communist Party a boost in popularity. This terrifying event still affects the relationship between the Chinese and the Japanese. In addition, the comfort women situation dispute remains largely controversial till this day.

Partition of India


The aftermath of the Partition of India can be seen in the relationship between Pakistan and India. Both countries remain hostile to each other in the 21st century. Prior to the partition, Pakistan was part of India. However, after the partition, India was made up of a Hindus population and Pakistan with a Muslim population. Tensions between both countries affect the peace of the world since both countries have nuclear weapons and are geographically close to each others. As a result, the Partition of India continues to affect the world till this day.

The Vietnam Wars

1955 - 1975

After the containment of Communism failed in Vietnam, the country remains communists. This unsuccessful war has caused the death of millions if not more. Because the North Vietnamese refused to succumb, the US sent soldiers that died without ever achieving the ultimate goal of preventing Vietnam from becoming a Communist country.

Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1976

The Cultural Revolution was instituted by Mao Zedong to eradicate scholars and the bourgeoisie. This event was responsible for the death of many Chinese intellects as well as famine that wrecked the Chinese society at the time. In the long run, this event triggered China's desire to catch up the with the world no matter what the costs are, which led to the death of more to come.

Deng Xiaoping and reform in China

1976 - 1989

Deng Xiaoping was a victim of the Cultural Revolution. As a result, when he rose to power, he instituted various reforms that sought to open China to foreign influences. Unlike the zealous Mao, China was rather stable in terms of its political and social aspects. Foreign trade was made possible under Deng.