MWH Review - B Pd - Schiller

Unit 1: The Age of Exploration

conquistadors

1500 - 1600

They were Spanish Explorers who went to the Americas to claim land for Spain.

Trans-Atlantic slave trade

1500 - 1800

This was formed as one of the branches of Triangular Trade between Africa, Europe, and the Americas.

Mughal Empire

1526 - 1750

The Mughal Empire was a Muslim ruled empire which governed much of northern India.

Manchu/Qing Dynasty

1600 - 1900

The Manchus conquered the Ming Dynasty in China and then ruled China for 300 years.

Unit 2: The French Revolution

Estates General

1789

formed by 3rd estate and liberal members of the 1st and 2nd estate. They abolished feudalism and declared all men equal before the law

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

3 Phases: 1789-1799--
"Moderate Phase" (1789-19791)
"Radical Phase" (1792-1794)
"Directory" (1795-1799)

The Declaration of the Right of Man and the Citizen

August 1789

1791: national assembly set up Declaration of the Rights of Man. claimed all men born equal and free and had national rights to life, liberty, property, security, and resistance to unjust authority.

Also, all men had right to own public office, defend freedom of religion and fair taxation

Suffrage

1792

Suffrage(the right to vote) was granted to all male citizens

Reign of Terror

September 1793 - July 1794

Reign of Terror:
-Time of Dictatorship(Robespierre)
-terror was enforced upon people for 3 reasons:
1. "Republic of Virtue”
2. win wars abroad/
3. suppress enemies of Republic at home
-guillotine was used as death machine
-many thousands killed and arrested

Napoleonic Code

1804

one of the most lasting reforms of Napoleon. It embodied enlightenment principles: equality, religious freedom, abolition of feudalism. However, it did undo some reforms- women lost most of their newly gained rights.

*valued order and authority of personal rights
*strengthened Napoleons rule but destroyed some accomplishments of Rev.

Congress of Vienna

September 1814 - June 1815

-gathering held by Minister Metternich of Austria
-leaders of Europe (Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain, and France)
*goal: create lasting peace, and establish a balance of power

Unit 3: Age of Revolution

Haiti won Independence

1791 - 1820

Toussaint L'Ouverture led Haiti slaves fought against western colonizers in 1791, finally, in 1820, Haiti became a republic.

South American revolution led by Simon Bolivar

1810 - 1824

-1810, Bolivar led an uprising in Venezuela but failed.
-1819, he attacked the Spanish in Colombia and freed Colombia
-1821, Bolivar had succeeded in freeing Caracas, Venezuela.
He then freed Ecuador, Peru, Panama and Bolivia before 1824

Unifying Italy

1849 - 1870
  1. In 1849, Giuseppe Mazzini, founder of Young Italy, helped set up a revolutionary republic in Rome. French troops soon toppled it.
  2. In 1859, Prime Minister Camillo Cavour provoked a war with Austria after secret negotiations with Napoleon III.
  3. In 1860, Cavour provided weapons to Giuseppe, who invaded Sicily with 1000 Red Shirt volunteer.
  4. In 1870, Italians conquer Rome, which became the capital of a unified Italy

Russian emanicipation

1861

In 1861, Alexander II issued emancipation, freeing of the serfs.

Franco-Prussian War

1870

In France, the victory of Prussia over Austria angered Napoleon III because Prussia formed alliance with Austria before. A growing rivalry between Prussia and France led to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Superior Prussian force beat poorly organized and supplied French soldiers.

Unit 4: New Imperialism

Color Key:

Green is all events in Chapter 24 Section 2, pages 754 to 760.

Blue is all events in Chapter 24 Section 4, pages 767 to 771.

Red is all events in Chapter 24 Section 5, pages 773-777.

The Opium War

1839

The Opium War started with Britains want for tea. The British made the balance of trade unfoavorable by introducing the opium drug to China.

Once a strong majority of China had a drug addiction. The Chinese began trading silver for the drug, severly disrupting Chinese economy. China outlawed the drug in attempt to make Britain stop trading it, yet Britain still secretly traded after it was outlawed. This continuation of drug trading caused Chinese warships and British merchants to clash into war. Since Britain had such better war technology, the Chinese were easily defeated.

China's government haired a czar to handle the drup problem. The Czar held British hostages in exchange for 3 million supply of opium. The British agreed, and the Opium was disposed of through a burning.

Short Term Effect: China feels weaked, begins "Century of Shame".

Long Term Effect: Opium trade still continues, another war in about 15 years. China ends up opening more ports as result of war.

Treaty of Nanjing

1842

A treaty triggered by the Opium War. The treaty says that Britain recieves payments for losses in war, Britain gets Hong Kong and China is forced to open 5 ports of foreign trade. All ports were on the east coast (Fuzhoa, Ningbo, Xiamen, Shanghai and Guangzoa).

ALSO China was forced to give British citizens living in China extraterritoriality (the right to live under British law and the right to be tried by British courts).

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

The Taiping rebellion was a peasant rebellion concerning their unhappiness with the government situation. This explosive and sudden rebellion was triggered by massive flooding, population explosion and extravagent impearial courts taxing peasants.

Rebellion leader, Hing Xiuquan, felt that he was the younger brother of Jesus and it was his duty to save China. He wanted to create a "Heavenly Kingdom of Peace".

Hong Xiuquan wanted to end Qing dynasty. Rebels held parts of China for up to 14 years. Loyal generals/governers helped crushed rebellion with help from foreigners. The foreigners helped out of economic interest.

The Qing government survived, but forced to share power with regional comanders.

Signifigance: This begins China's Westernization.

Sepoy Rebellion

1857

The British imposed many reforms that went against the Hindu religion. Hindu's thought that the British were conspiring against Hinduism.

One reform going against Hinduism was that the British passed a law allowing Hindu widows to re-marry. Britain required Indian soldiers (called Sepoys) to serve in India. The riffles cartridges the Indian soilders were required to use were covered in animal fats which is sacred in Hinduism and Muslim. When Indian siolders refused to bite off the tips, they were arrested.

The Seopys marched to Delhi, hailed last Mughal leader and they brutally murdered British families. British soilders crushed Sepoy revolts. This was the beginning of Indian Nationalism.

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

An international, conference held in Germany, where 14 heads of 14 European Powers plus America met to discuss how easily partition Africa while avoiding war, known as EFFECTIVE OCCUPATION. They did not invite an Africans to the conference.

They agreed that no European could claim any part of Africa unless it was agreed on by that area's government. This caused European countries to send officials that would claim lands by working with or in the African area's government.

Indian National Congress

1885

Created in Bombay and orgainzed by nationalist leaders, members of the INC believed in peaceful protests and wanted greater democracy in hops of eventual self rule.

Boer War

1899 - 1902

A conflict between the British and the Dutch (the Boers). Gold and diamond discovered on the British land that once belonged to the Boers. The British won.

Open Door Policy

1899

LOCATION: CHINA

The United States began to see the benefits of imperealism at a very late period of time compared to other superpowers. The United States decided to create a policy that would help the US catch up with the other superpowers.

The United States said that Chinese trade should be open to everyone on an equal basis. Imperial powers agreed upon this, but nobody consulted China (because the policy was highly unfavorable for China).

Short Term Significance: An attempt to keep Manchu government in power.

Long Tern Significance: The policy was not beneficial to China because foreigners would continue to have a huge presence in China's politics.

Boxer Rebellion

1899

A group of Chinese male peasants that formed a secret society with the goal of driving out "Foreign Devils" that wanted to change China's traditionalist ways.

The "Boxers" (which recieved this name because their style of fighting looked like boxing), felt that foreigners were challenging the Chinese Confuscian ideas.

The Boxers would attack all foreigners. A multinational force, comprising of Japan and Western powers, crushed the Boxer Rebellion.

Muslim League

1906

A group formed by Muslims that wre originally part of the Indian National Congress. These Muslims decided to make a seperate group because of the INC majority was Hindu.

Unit 5: World War I

Triple Alliance

1882 - 1914

Alliance formed between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.

Triple Entente

1907

-Alliance formed between France, Great Britain, and Russia
-Later known as the Allies during World War I

November Revolution

1917

-Provisional government fails to end the war and resolve internal problems
-Brings Bolsheviks to power

March Revolution

1917

-Russia
-Peasants were revolting, yelling "Bread! Bread" through the streets of St. Petersberg
-Tsar Nicholas abdicated
-Duma sets up a provisional government

Wilson's 14 Points

1918

Woodrow Wilson presents his (idealistic) peace plan.

Nicholas II Executed

1918

-Tsar Nicholas II was killed by Bolsheviks
-The last Tsar of Russia (or at that time, Soviet Union)

V.I. Lenin

1918

-Led Bolsheviks
-Signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany
-Treaty ended Russian participation in WWI

Armistice signed with Germany

November 18 1918

-Informal peace agreement between involved nations
-Prior to the Treaty of Versailles

League of Nations

1919 - 1946

-International peace organization created by the Treaty of Versailles
-Pre-United Nations

Treaty of Versailles Signed

June 28 1919

-Formal peace agreement, ending the Paris Peace Conference and officially ending World War I.
-Initially between the "Big Four" (Italy's Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Great Britain's David Lloyd George, France's Georges Clemenceau, and the United States's Woodrow Wilson), then presented to Germany.
-Germany was surprised with the conditions, as they were harsh from Germany's perspective and severely detrimental both economically and politically to Germany, but also had no voting power.

New Economic Policy (NEP)

1921

Lenin's Policy, allowed some capitalist ventures, although the state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit
-Government stopped taking grain from peasants
-Peasants got small plots of land and freely sold their surplus crops
-Helped economy recover/end armed resistance to new government

Unit 6: Nationalism

Porfirio Diaz

1910

The leader of Mexico.

Nationalist Revolution of 1911

1911 - 1912

People were demanding nationalism, democracy, and economic security. →Warlord uprising and foreign investments brought chaos in China.

Pan-African Congress

1919

Pan-African Congress founded in 1919 and It was to bring Unity of Africans and people of African descent worldwide.

Amritsar Massacre

April 13, 1919

A turning point for many Indians

Large peaceful crow of Indians Jammed into enclosed field.
400+killed, 1,000+ wounded

Outcome: Convinced Indians for its independent

Reza Khan

1925

The leader of Persia : Overthrew the Shah, himself as Shah

aims
rushed to modernize Persia and make it fully independent

Salt March

March 12, 1930 - April 6, 1930

Gandhi’s peaceful protest against British monopoly on salt

Result: Gandhi was imprisoned

Long March

1934

Jiang Jieshi determined to destroy the Communists
Threated Mao’s retreating army
Mao’s strategy of ‘Guerilla’ warfare

Unit 7: World War II & the Holocaust

Mussolini organized the Fascist party

1919
  • a fiery & charismatic speaker.
  • (1) Promised to end corruption + replace turmoil w/ order.
  • (2) promised to revive Roman greatness, pledging to turn the Mediterranean into a “Roman lake” once again.

March on Rome

10/30/1922

King Victor Emmanuel III asked Mussolini to form a govt. as prime minister.

Beer Hall Putsch

1923 - 1924

Hitler made a failed attempt to seize power in Munich, jailed.
1924, released

Mussolini - II Duce

1925

Mussolini assumed more power + took the title II Duce <the leader>

1st Five Year Plan

1928

Stalin proposed the 1st “five-year plan” – aimed at building heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm output.

Stalin's modernization reforms

1928 - 1939

large factories, hydroelectric poser stations, huge industrial complexes rose across the SU. (oil, coal, steel, railroads)

Reichstag Election

1932

Nazi party was elected – anti-communism

Hitler was appointed chancellor

January 1933

Hitler was appointed chancellor through legal means under the Weimar constitution

Reichstag Fire

February 1933

Nazi blamed the communists (not sure who did it)

Enabling Act

March 1933

Hitler had the power to pass laws by decree + communists were purged.

Great Purge in USSR

1934 - 1938

Stalin launched the Great Purge (a reign of terror)

Nuremberg Laws

1935

Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws, anti-Semitism, deprived Jews of German citizenship + place severe restrictions on them.

Munich Conference

September 1938

British & France leaders chose appeasement

Kristallnacht, “night of Broken Glass”

11/09/1938 - 11/10/1938

• November 7, 1938, a young Jew, whose parents were mistreated in Germany, shot & wounded a German diplomat in Paris (an excuse to stage an attack on Jews).
• Nazi started attacks on Jews.

Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia

March 1939

Hitler broke his promises + gobbled up the rest of Czechoslovakia

Nazi-Soviet Pact

August 1939

secretly agreed not to fight if the other to went to war + divide up Poland & other parts of Eastern Europe between them.

WWII began

09/01/1939

a week after Nazi-Soviet Pact Pact, German forces invaded Poland, WWII began.

the blitz, operation the sea lion

09/07/1940 - 05/1941
  • Germany used Blitzkrieg to attack London - operation the sea lion
  • “the blitz” <bombing attacks>, destroyed London – failure.

Holocaust

1941 - 1945

Nazis massacred some 6 million Jews

Wannsee Conference

1942

formally revealed the “Final Solution of the Jewish problem”

Unit 8: Cold War

Yalta Conference

February 1945
  • "Secret" meeting between Roosevelt (US) & Stalin (USSR) & Churchill (GB)
  • Agreed:
  • Soviets would go to war with Japan three months after Germany surrendered
  • Soviets would get land in Sakhalin Island, Kuril Islands, and part of an occupation zone in Korea
  • Soviets would hold free elections (Soviets didn't actually hold free elections) And that Germany would be divided into 4 zones (British, American, French, and Soviet)

Potsdam Conference

July 1945
  • Meeting between Truman (US (Roosevelt died)), Stalin (USSR), and Churchill (GB)
  • Americans didn't need their help any more now that they had atomic capabilities (and therefore much more advanced technology and military power)
  • Truman against making USSR going to war with Japan

Truman Doctrine

1947
  • US anti-communism (pro-democracy) document
  • Said that US would actively limit communism
  • Shortly after writing this they sent Turkey and Greece military and monetary aid to help fight communism

Containment

1947
  • Part of Truman Doctrine
  • Helped contain communism (main problem of communism = spread easily and quickly, esp. to small & weak countries)

Berlin blockade

1948
  • Blockade in Berlin to stop transportation from the Communist East Berlin to the Democratic West Berlin
  • All roads and railroads heading West were blockaded by Stalin (too many people from East Berlin were leaving)

Berlin airlift

1948
  • Successful response to Berlin Blockade
  • Western powers (esp. US) sent planes with food, water, and other necessities to West Berlin 24/7
  • Stalin took down blockade
  • Increased tensions between US and USSR

Marshall Plan

1948
  • Created by US
  • Plan to send food and monetary aid to European countries in need, mainly non-communist countries
  • USSR (and its Soviet allies) rejected package when offered it
  • USSR funded their own allies to seem more powerful and make communism seem optimal/capable/successful

Communist Revolution of 1949

1949
  • Civil war of Mao Zedong's Communists vs. Jiang Jieshi's Nationalists (the Guomindang)
  • Communists won
  • China becomes Communist one-party totalitarian state
  • Mao becomes Communist leader of the People's Republic of China
  • Jieshi flees to Taiwan with Nationalists

NATO

1949
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Alliance between US, Canada, and ten other countries
  • Pledged to help each other if attacked

Cuban Revolution

1950
  • Led by Fidel Castro
  • Armed rebellion
  • Reformed old (corrupt) government by nationalizing businesses and making land controlled by the new government

Warsaw Pact

1955
  • Formed as a response to NATO
  • USSR + 7 satellite countries

Great Leap Forward

1958 - 1960
  • Failed policy created by Mao in China
  • Collectivization and communes that cut food output
  • Backyard industries turned out low quality useless goods
  • No incentive to work
  • Unused farm land
  • Major famine from 1959-1961 (killed 55 million Chinese from starvation)

Collectivization

1958 - 1960
  • Part of Great Leap Forward
  • Forced pooling of peasant land and labor

Berlin Wall

1961 - 1989
  • Divided East (Communist) and West (Democratic) Berlin
  • More powerful solution than Berlin Blockade in 1948
  • Torn down in 1989, helped reunite Germany

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962
  1. USSR sent missiles to Cuba
  2. US blockaded Cuba (to keep them from sending more missiles)
  3. Khrushchev agreed to remove the USSR missiles from Cuba
  4. Could've started a nuclear war between the USSR and the US

Cultural Revolution

1966
  • Mao's failed policy, the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was intended to purge China of "bourgeois tendencies"
  • Accused people were publicly humiliated, beaten, or killed
  • Skilled workers and managers forced to do manual labor instead of their current jobs
  • Schools and factories closed
  • Economy slowed
  • Possibility of a civil war
  • Mao's army had to restore order in China

Red Guards

1966
  • Part of Cultural Revolution
  • Chinese youth
  • Mao wanted them to experience a revolution as he had
  • Attacked bourgeoisie and those they thought were bourgeoisie
  • Little Red Books (filled with Mao quotes)

Detente

1971 - 1979

"Relaxation"
- US, USSR, & China officially relaxed tensions
- Partially led to the eventual end of the Cold War

Perestroika

1985
  • Led by Mikhail Gorbachev
  • Restructuring of government and economy
  • Reduced size of bureaucracy
  • Backed limited private enterprises

Glasnost

1985

"Openness"
- Led by Mikhail Gorbachev
- Ended censorship
- Encouraged open discussion about government

Collapse of Communism

1989
  • USSR and China = only remaining communist governments
  • China's government evolved into a different form of communism so their economy would improve
  • USSR's government became less strict and had more competition with less productivity, so they became weak
  • US became the most powerful country in the world, with no competition

End of Cold War

1989
  • Berlin Wall fell
  • Communism collapsed
  • Tensions between the countries ended

Unit 9 : Nation- Building

India became independent

1947

Israeli Independence

1948

Gamal Nasser seizes power

1952

Nasser nationalizes suez canal

1956

Ghana Gained independence

1957

Was with help from Kwame Nkrumah

Sharpeville Massacre

1960

Six Day War

June 5, 1967 - June 10, 1967

Kenya gains independence

1969

Jomo Kenyatta became first leader of independent Kenya

Anwar Sadat comes to power

1970

Camp David Accords

1978

Ayatollah Khomeini comes to power

1979

Egypt- Israel Peace Treaty

1979

Mao Zedong comes to power

1981

Tiananmen Square

May 1989 - June 1989

Oslo Accords

1993