They were Spanish Explorers who went to the Americas to claim land for Spain.
This was formed as one of the branches of Triangular Trade between Africa, Europe, and the Americas.
The Mughal Empire was a Muslim ruled empire which governed much of northern India.
The Manchus conquered the Ming Dynasty in China and then ruled China for 300 years.
3 Phases: 1789-1799--
"Moderate Phase" (1789-19791)
"Radical Phase" (1792-1794)
formed by 3rd estate and liberal members of the 1st and 2nd estate. They abolished feudalism and declared all men equal before the law
1791: national assembly set up Declaration of the Rights of Man. claimed all men born equal and free and had national rights to life, liberty, property, security, and resistance to unjust authority.
Also, all men had right to own public office, defend freedom of religion and fair taxation
Suffrage(the right to vote) was granted to all male citizens
Reign of Terror:
-Time of Dictatorship(Robespierre)
-terror was enforced upon people for 3 reasons:
1. "Republic of Virtue”
2. win wars abroad/
3. suppress enemies of Republic at home
-guillotine was used as death machine
-many thousands killed and arrested
one of the most lasting reforms of Napoleon. It embodied enlightenment principles: equality, religious freedom, abolition of feudalism. However, it did undo some reforms- women lost most of their newly gained rights.
*valued order and authority of personal rights
*strengthened Napoleons rule but destroyed some accomplishments of Rev.
-gathering held by Minister Metternich of Austria
-leaders of Europe (Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain, and France)
*goal: create lasting peace, and establish a balance of power
Toussaint L'Ouverture led Haiti slaves fought against western colonizers in 1791, finally, in 1820, Haiti became a republic.
-1810, Bolivar led an uprising in Venezuela but failed.
-1819, he attacked the Spanish in Colombia and freed Colombia
-1821, Bolivar had succeeded in freeing Caracas, Venezuela.
He then freed Ecuador, Peru, Panama and Bolivia before 1824
In 1861, Alexander II issued emancipation, freeing of the serfs.
In France, the victory of Prussia over Austria angered Napoleon III because Prussia formed alliance with Austria before. A growing rivalry between Prussia and France led to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Superior Prussian force beat poorly organized and supplied French soldiers.
Green is all events in Chapter 24 Section 2, pages 754 to 760.
Blue is all events in Chapter 24 Section 4, pages 767 to 771.
Red is all events in Chapter 24 Section 5, pages 773-777.
The Opium War started with Britains want for tea. The British made the balance of trade unfoavorable by introducing the opium drug to China.
Once a strong majority of China had a drug addiction. The Chinese began trading silver for the drug, severly disrupting Chinese economy. China outlawed the drug in attempt to make Britain stop trading it, yet Britain still secretly traded after it was outlawed. This continuation of drug trading caused Chinese warships and British merchants to clash into war. Since Britain had such better war technology, the Chinese were easily defeated.
China's government haired a czar to handle the drup problem. The Czar held British hostages in exchange for 3 million supply of opium. The British agreed, and the Opium was disposed of through a burning.
Short Term Effect: China feels weaked, begins "Century of Shame".
Long Term Effect: Opium trade still continues, another war in about 15 years. China ends up opening more ports as result of war.
A treaty triggered by the Opium War. The treaty says that Britain recieves payments for losses in war, Britain gets Hong Kong and China is forced to open 5 ports of foreign trade. All ports were on the east coast (Fuzhoa, Ningbo, Xiamen, Shanghai and Guangzoa).
ALSO China was forced to give British citizens living in China extraterritoriality (the right to live under British law and the right to be tried by British courts).
The Taiping rebellion was a peasant rebellion concerning their unhappiness with the government situation. This explosive and sudden rebellion was triggered by massive flooding, population explosion and extravagent impearial courts taxing peasants.
Rebellion leader, Hing Xiuquan, felt that he was the younger brother of Jesus and it was his duty to save China. He wanted to create a "Heavenly Kingdom of Peace".
Hong Xiuquan wanted to end Qing dynasty. Rebels held parts of China for up to 14 years. Loyal generals/governers helped crushed rebellion with help from foreigners. The foreigners helped out of economic interest.
The Qing government survived, but forced to share power with regional comanders.
Signifigance: This begins China's Westernization.
The British imposed many reforms that went against the Hindu religion. Hindu's thought that the British were conspiring against Hinduism.
One reform going against Hinduism was that the British passed a law allowing Hindu widows to re-marry. Britain required Indian soldiers (called Sepoys) to serve in India. The riffles cartridges the Indian soilders were required to use were covered in animal fats which is sacred in Hinduism and Muslim. When Indian siolders refused to bite off the tips, they were arrested.
The Seopys marched to Delhi, hailed last Mughal leader and they brutally murdered British families. British soilders crushed Sepoy revolts. This was the beginning of Indian Nationalism.
An international, conference held in Germany, where 14 heads of 14 European Powers plus America met to discuss how easily partition Africa while avoiding war, known as EFFECTIVE OCCUPATION. They did not invite an Africans to the conference.
They agreed that no European could claim any part of Africa unless it was agreed on by that area's government. This caused European countries to send officials that would claim lands by working with or in the African area's government.
Created in Bombay and orgainzed by nationalist leaders, members of the INC believed in peaceful protests and wanted greater democracy in hops of eventual self rule.
A group of Chinese male peasants that formed a secret society with the goal of driving out "Foreign Devils" that wanted to change China's traditionalist ways.
The "Boxers" (which recieved this name because their style of fighting looked like boxing), felt that foreigners were challenging the Chinese Confuscian ideas.
The Boxers would attack all foreigners. A multinational force, comprising of Japan and Western powers, crushed the Boxer Rebellion.
A conflict between the British and the Dutch (the Boers). Gold and diamond discovered on the British land that once belonged to the Boers. The British won.
The United States began to see the benefits of imperealism at a very late period of time compared to other superpowers. The United States decided to create a policy that would help the US catch up with the other superpowers.
The United States said that Chinese trade should be open to everyone on an equal basis. Imperial powers agreed upon this, but nobody consulted China (because the policy was highly unfavorable for China).
Short Term Significance: An attempt to keep Manchu government in power.
Long Tern Significance: The policy was not beneficial to China because foreigners would continue to have a huge presence in China's politics.
A group formed by Muslims that wre originally part of the Indian National Congress. These Muslims decided to make a seperate group because of the INC majority was Hindu.
Alliance formed between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
-Alliance formed between France, Great Britain, and Russia
-Later known as the Allies during World War I
-Peasants were revolting, yelling "Bread! Bread" through the streets of St. Petersberg
-Tsar Nicholas abdicated
-Duma sets up a provisional government
-Provisional government fails to end the war and resolve internal problems
-Brings Bolsheviks to power
-Signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany
-Treaty ended Russian participation in WWI
-Tsar Nicholas II was killed by Bolsheviks
-The last Tsar of Russia (or at that time, Soviet Union)
Woodrow Wilson presents his (idealistic) peace plan.
-Informal peace agreement between involved nations
-Prior to the Treaty of Versailles
-International peace organization created by the Treaty of Versailles
-Formal peace agreement, ending the Paris Peace Conference and officially ending World War I.
-Initially between the "Big Four" (Italy's Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Great Britain's David Lloyd George, France's Georges Clemenceau, and the United States's Woodrow Wilson), then presented to Germany.
-Germany was surprised with the conditions, as they were harsh from Germany's perspective and severely detrimental both economically and politically to Germany, but also had no voting power.
Lenin's Policy, allowed some capitalist ventures, although the state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit
-Government stopped taking grain from peasants
-Peasants got small plots of land and freely sold their surplus crops
-Helped economy recover/end armed resistance to new government
The leader of Mexico.
People were demanding nationalism, democracy, and economic security. →Warlord uprising and foreign investments brought chaos in China.
Pan-African Congress founded in 1919 and It was to bring Unity of Africans and people of African descent worldwide.
A turning point for many Indians
Large peaceful crow of Indians Jammed into enclosed field.
400+killed, 1,000+ wounded
Outcome: Convinced Indians for its independent
The leader of Persia : Overthrew the Shah, himself as Shah
rushed to modernize Persia and make it fully independent
Gandhi’s peaceful protest against British monopoly on salt
Result: Gandhi was imprisoned
Jiang Jieshi determined to destroy the Communists
Threated Mao’s retreating army
Mao’s strategy of ‘Guerilla’ warfare
King Victor Emmanuel III asked Mussolini to form a govt. as prime minister.
Hitler made a failed attempt to seize power in Munich, jailed.
Mussolini assumed more power + took the title II Duce
Stalin proposed the 1st “five-year plan” – aimed at building heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm output.
large factories, hydroelectric poser stations, huge industrial complexes rose across the SU. (oil, coal, steel, railroads)
Nazi party was elected – anti-communism
Hitler was appointed chancellor through legal means under the Weimar constitution
Nazi blamed the communists (not sure who did it)
Hitler had the power to pass laws by decree + communists were purged.
Stalin launched the Great Purge (a reign of terror)
Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws, anti-Semitism, deprived Jews of German citizenship + place severe restrictions on them.
British & France leaders chose appeasement
• November 7, 1938, a young Jew, whose parents were mistreated in Germany, shot & wounded a German diplomat in Paris (an excuse to stage an attack on Jews).
• Nazi started attacks on Jews.
Hitler broke his promises + gobbled up the rest of Czechoslovakia
secretly agreed not to fight if the other to went to war + divide up Poland & other parts of Eastern Europe between them.
a week after Nazi-Soviet Pact Pact, German forces invaded Poland, WWII began.
Nazis massacred some 6 million Jews
formally revealed the “Final Solution of the Jewish problem”
- US, USSR, & China officially relaxed tensions
- Partially led to the eventual end of the Cold War
- Led by Mikhail Gorbachev
- Ended censorship
- Encouraged open discussion about government
Was with help from Kwame Nkrumah
Jomo Kenyatta became first leader of independent Kenya