MWH Review - E Pd - Peet

Unit 1: The Age of Exploration


1501 - 1600

Spanish conquerors of Central and South America

Hernan Cortes captured Tenochtitlan


Hernan Cortez - one of the earliest conquistadors

Mughal Empire

1526 - 1875

-center of the valuable spice trade
-the world leader in textile manufacturing, exporting large quantities of silk and cotton cloth
-larger, richer and more powerful than any kingdom in Europe
-Permitted the Portuguese and later the Dutch, English, and French to build forts and ware houses in Indian coastal towns

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912

1644: Manchu armies seized Beijing and made it their capital

Dutch immigrants built Cape Town


Emperor Kangxi

1661 - 1722

brought Chinese influence into Central Asia

Emperor Qianlong

1736 - 1796

broaden China’s border -> the largest area of land in the nation’s history

Unit 2: The French Revolution


The Wealth of Nations


Written by Adam Smith, a supporter of mercantilism in France
Smith supported laissez faire, a system of government where business are allowed to operate with little to no government influence

The French Revolution

1789 - 1799

a period of radical social upheaval in France that impact the country and all of Europe

Moderate phase of National Assembly

1789 - 1791

turned France into a constitutional monarchy

Radial phase of National Assembly

1792 - 1794

growing violence leads to the end of the monarchy and the Reign of Terror

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

led by Robespierre
was a period in France where people suspected of resisting revolution were arrested and jailed
fear and terror forced compliance

Age of Napoleon

1799 - 1815

Napoleon quickly rises to power during the turmoil of the revolution

Napoleonic Code


-equality of all citizens
-religious toleration
-abolition of feudalism
-no rights for women

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

meeting of European leaders to establish lasting peace

Unit 3: Age of Revolution

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

Ending in 1804 the Haitian Revolution was the first and only successful slave revolt. It also inspired later revolts such as thoose in South America led by Bolivar.

Venezuelan Revolution Led by Bolivar


Caracas Revolution led by Bolivar


Ecuadorian Revolution led by Bolivar


Peruvian Revolution Led by Bolivar


Bolivian Revolution led by Bolivar


Karl Marx Publishes Communist Manifesto


Marx was a German Philosopher and he wrote the Communist Manifesto. His ideas were based on scientific socialism and the “haves/ have nots”. His ideas were used in the 1960’s by the German social democrats and in 1917 during the Russian revolution.

Cavour become Prime Minister of Piedmont


Alexander II's Rule

1855 - 1881

Alexander II rule is an example of the cycle of reform and repression in Russia.

Garibaldi takes control of Sicily and Naples


Garibaldi takes control of Sicily and Naples with assistance from Cavour (supplies/weapons) and gives the areas to Emmanuel I.

Emmanuel I is made king of Italy


Emmanuel I is made king of Italy but Italy is not yet entirely unified because the kingdom is missing some areas.

Austro-Prussian War- Italy gains Venetia


Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

The Franco-Prussian War was the war between France and Prussia. Bismarck tricked France into war, because he believed it was the best for Prussia (Realpolitik) and in 1871 Prussia claimed the North German States. Germany was therefore unified and the balance of power shifted to Germany

Franco-Prussian War-Unified Italy


Italy gains Rome and is now unified

Unit 4: New Imperialism

Opium War

1839 - 1842

Between Britain and China over restrictions to India's Opium trade. Ended with the Treat of Nanjing. Britain won.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

Peasant revolt almost toppled the Qing dynasty. Held parts of China for 14 years.

Berlin Confrence

1884 - 1885

European Leaders meet to discuss the future for African Colonies intending to avoid war. Set new expectations: can not claim a colony without a government office present, free trade, redrew map of africa with no regard to territorial or ethnic tribes, recognized King Leopold's claims in Congo.

Indian National Congress


Nationalist leaders believed in peaceful protests to gain greater democracy. Wanted self-rule, but supported Western-style modernization

Boer War

1889 - 1902

Great Britain defeated the Boers of South Africa. Boers were Dutch settlers of Cape Town

Open Door Policy


China was forced by imperial powers to trade equally with all countries. China was controlled by foreign power, which sparked the Boxer Rebellion

Boxer Rebellion


The Boxers attacked foreigners across China. Upset with Open Door Policy.

Muslim League


Resented Hindu domination of Indian National Congress. Worried about Hindu-run government.

Treaty of Nanjing

1942 - 1943

Britain gained Hong Kong, extraterritoriality, and indemnity. China was forced to open more ports for trade and ultimately lost power

Unit 5: World War I

Triple Alliance

1882 - 1914
  • An alliance between Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary.
  • Germany and Austria-Hungary later became the Central Powers after WWI began
  • Italy joined the Allies

World War I

1914 - 1918

March Revolution

March 1917
  • Forced Nicholas II to give up his spot as tsar
  • The Duma then set up a provisional government

November Revolution

November 1917
  • The Red Guards attacked the Duma’s provisional government
  • The Bolsheviks seized control
  • Moscow became the Bolshevik’s capital
  • Lenin led the Bolsheviks

League of Nations

1919 - 1946
  • Created by Wilson
  • The participating countries agreed to negotiate issues instead if going to war
  • Agreed to creating a common front against an enemy
  • Was the 1st step toward an international organization dedicated to maintaining peace and advancing the interests of all peoples

Treaty of Versailles

June 1919
  • Germany and the Allied Powers
  • Germany had to take blame for WWI, pay war reparations, and largely shrink its military
  • Long term effect: German resentment of the Treaty of Versailles would poison the international climate for 20 years. It would help spark WWII

New Economic Policy

  • Created under Lenin
  • The government kept its control over banks, foreign trade, and large industries • Small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit
  • Peasants were allowed small plots of land and could freely sell their surplus crops
  • Result: • Soviet Union’s economy recovered • Standards of living improved • Food and industry production reached prewar levels

Benito Mussolini


March on Rome- legally handed power

Hitler Comes to Power


Unit 6: Nationalism

Theodor Herzl


Zionism; wanted to build a Jewish state in Palestine.
Fought against anti-semitism

Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1917
  1. Carranza against Porfirio Diaz: inequality
  2. 1917, Constitution of 1917, land, religion and labor.

Nationalist Revolution of 1911


Led by Sun Yixian
Ended the imperial rule
established the Republic of China

Balfour Declaration


British: promised to give Jews a national home in Palestine
Coflict promise: allies promised Arabs a home in Palestine

Amritsar massacre


British to Indians
British banned Indian public meeting--opened fire on the crowd in a meeting
convinced Indians to govern themselves
INC changed its goal from self-rule within BritishEmpire to independence

Mohandas K. Gandhi


used religion to unify India
Fought for independence
Used nonviolence against invaders
advocated western democracy
equal rights for everyone
civil disobedience

Reza Khan


The Shah of Persia (Iran)
Westernized, modernized and industrialized
improved women's status--participation in public
made British oil industries shared profit woth Iran
the government won more control over Iran's resources

Jiang Jieshi


determined to reunite China and defeat the warlords
Interested in neither democracy nor communism
North expedition in 1926--seized Beijing and coorperated with communists
viewed communists as a threat--massacred communists

Salt March


Led by Mohandas K. Gandhi
a peaceful march to collect salt from sea
agaisnt British Salt Monopoly which was a symbol of oppression
Forced British to hand some power to Indians

Long March

1934 - 1935

Mao Zedong--communists v.s Jiang Jieshi--Guomindang
Moa: believed the communists should seek supports from poeasants rather than the urban workers
strict disciplines--won supports among peasants

Unit 7: World War II & the Holocaust

By: Kate Layman and Charlotte Mathews

Joseph Stalin Comes to Power


After death of Lenin

Five Year Plans

1928 - 1933

This was Stalin’s Economic Plan
• Wanted to become more industrial
• Improve transportation
• Aimed at building a heavy industry
• Increasing farm outlets
• Put all economic activity under governments control
• Gov owned all businesses
• created a command economy (=gov makes all basic economic decisions)

Nuremberg Laws


=Laws passed by Hitler that deprived all German Jews from their German Citizenship
Also deprived them of:
• Marring Non-Jews
• Attending/ Teaching at German Schools
• Holding Government Jobs
• Practicing law or medicine
• first time Jews were thought of as a race



=Violent physical attacks on Jews across Germany and Germany’s Territories
• Started when a young Jewish boy shot a diplomat in Paris who was mistreating his parents --used as an excuse to attack Jews
• Shops were destroyed and people were assaulted

Munich Conference


Great Britain and France appeased to Hitler’s demands for Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia and persuaded the Czechs to surrender. Hitler promised that he would expand his territory no further but did not keep his promise in the end.

Nazi Soviet Pact


Bound Hitler and Stalin to peaceful relations, promised not to fight if one went to war.



• = “lightning war”
• Nazi forces stormed Poland
• The German Air Force bombed airfields, factories, towns and cities.
• Germany attacked from the west, Stalin attacked from the east

World War II

1939 - 1945

Start: Hitlers invasion of Poland
End: September 2, 1945 when a peaceful treaty was signed aboard the US battleship Misouri

Wannsee Conference


Hitler declared his “Final Solution” – The idea to exterminate all of Europe’s Jews.
Resulted in ghettos, concentration and death camps.
Close to 6 million killed.

Unit 8: The Cold War

Yalta Conference

February 1945

When: February 1945
Who: Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
Purpose: To re-discuss Europe post WWII
Outcome: The big three agreed to go to war with Japan three months of Germany’s surrender. Stalin would get southern Sakhlin island, the Kuril Islands, and occupation zone in Korea. Free elections in Eastern Europe. Germany would be split into four zones.
Note: The big three differed because Stalin wanted to spread communism. Stalin wanted buffer states like Germany to stop capitalist influences. Roosevelt and Churchill wanted self determination.

Truman Doctrine


Doctrine written by President Truman emphasizing that communism should be contained within the USSR

Berlin Blockade

June 24 1948 - May 12 1949

Background: Because Berlin was the capital of Germany, the allies decided to split berlin into East and West Berlin. USSR was in control of East Berlin.
When: June 1948
What: The Soviet Union blockaded roads and railroads into Berlin -- tried to force western allies to abandon their occupied zone.



North Atlantic Treaty Organization with anti-communist members

Communist Revolution


Led by Mao Zedong against nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi and won.
Appealed to peasant population and tried to purge China of bourgeois tendencies.

Cuban Missile Crisis

November 7 1952 - November 20 1952

USSR put nuclear missiles in Cuba which frightened the U.S. so the US asked for the missiles to be removed.

Cuban Revolution

July 1953 - January 1959

Led by Fidel Castro to overthrow Fulgencio Batista

Berlin Wall

August 1961 - November 9 1989

Separated East and West Berlin

Unit 9: Nation Building

India and Pakistan Become Independent


India and Pakistan win indepedence from Britian after partition.

Jawaharlal Nehru in Office

1947 - 1967

Nehru was the first Prime Mininster of independent India. His priority was to strengthen the Indian economy, for example, he promoted the Green Revolution in the 1960s.

Israel is founded.


Apartheid in South Africa

1948 - 1994

Apartheid was a system of legal segregation in South Africa. It seperated people into four groups: white, black, asian, and mixed. Open elections in 1994 brought the end of apartheid in South Africa.

Green Revolution

1950 - 1969

The Green Revolution increased agricultural production in countries such as India. The Green Revolution was when improved farming methods and products were introduced in many parts of the world. (1950s to 1960s).

Mau Mau Uprisings (begin)


In the 1950s, more radical leaders (than Kenyatta) in Kenya turrned to guerrila wafare against the British. The British called them the Mau Mau. To stop the Mau Mau violence, the British arrested Kenyatta.

Suez Crisis


Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, resulting in a confrontation between Eygpt, Britain, and France. (Also Israel, US, USSR, and United Nations).

Gamal Abdel Nasser Elected President of Egypt


-Determined to modernize and stop western influence
-Arab nationalism makes him popular throughout Arab world
-Took Soviet aid because U.S was helping Israel
-2 unsuccessful wars with Israel
-Built Aswan dam
-Suez Crisis

Ghana Independence


The Gold Coast (Ghana) won indpendence under Kwama Nkrumah.

Sharpeville Massacre


In South Africa, police gunned down 69 anti-apartheid demonstrators. This (and the government crack down on the ANC) led the ANC to moved away from peaceful protest to more violent actions.

Kenya Independence


Jomo Kenyatta's actions led to the independence of Kenya.

Six Day War

June 1967

War between Israel and the surrounding Arab states, in which, Israel won and gained the West Bank, Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights.

Anwar Sadat Reopens Suez Canal


Camp David Accords


Peace Treaty between Egypt and Isreal, in which, Egypt gets back the Sinai Peninsula. Anwar Sadat (Egypt) - first Arab leader to make peace with Israel.

Iran Becomes a Theocracy


Ayatollah Khomeini (religious leader) and supporters ousted the Shah after he worked with the US. Khomeini then declared Iran an Islamic Republic and ran Iran as a theocracy.

Deng Xiaoping Reforms China's Economy


Four Modernizations - agriculture, industry, science, defence
Open Door Policy
Working to undo damage done by Mao

Intifada - Palestinian

1987 - 1993

Intifada were the Palestinian uprisings in the West Bank and Gaza Strip against Israeli occupation.

Tiananmen Square Massacre

May 1989

Thousands of demonstrators (many students) occupied Tiananmen Square in Beijing and called for democracy. After several days the government sent in troops and tanks.

Oslo Accords


-Between Isreal (Yitzhak Rabin) and Palestinians (Yasser Arafat/PLO)
-Gave Palestinians in t West Bank and Gaza limited self-rule under Palestinian Authority.
-The PLO recognized Isreal's right to exist and pledged to stop terrorist attacks.

Nelson Mandela Elected President


Mandela was the first South African president after the end of apartheid. He worked with deKlerk and others in the government to ease the transition.