-center of the valuable spice trade
-the world leader in textile manufacturing, exporting large quantities of silk and cotton cloth
-larger, richer and more powerful than any kingdom in Europe
-Permitted the Portuguese and later the Dutch, English, and French to build forts and ware houses in Indian coastal towns
1644 - 1912
1644: Manchu armies seized Beijing and made it their capital
Dutch immigrants built Cape Town
1661 - 1722
brought Chinese influence into Central Asia
1736 - 1796
broaden China’s border -> the largest area of land in the nation’s history
Unit 2: The French Revolution
The Wealth of Nations
Written by Adam Smith, a supporter of mercantilism in France
Smith supported laissez faire, a system of government where business are allowed to operate with little to no government influence
Moderate phase of National Assembly
1789 - 1791
turned France into a constitutional monarchy
The French Revolution
1789 - 1799
a period of radical social upheaval in France that impact the country and all of Europe
Radial phase of National Assembly
1792 - 1794
growing violence leads to the end of the monarchy and the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
1793 - 1794
led by Robespierre
was a period in France where people suspected of resisting revolution were arrested and jailed
fear and terror forced compliance
Age of Napoleon
1799 - 1815
Napoleon quickly rises to power during the turmoil of the revolution
-equality of all citizens
-abolition of feudalism
-no rights for women
Congress of Vienna
1814 - 1815
meeting of European leaders to establish lasting peace
Unit 3: Age of Revolution
1791 - 1804
Ending in 1804 the Haitian Revolution was the first and only successful slave revolt. It also inspired later revolts such as thoose in South America led by Bolivar.
Venezuelan Revolution Led by Bolivar
Caracas Revolution led by Bolivar
Ecuadorian Revolution led by Bolivar
Peruvian Revolution Led by Bolivar
Bolivian Revolution led by Bolivar
Karl Marx Publishes Communist Manifesto
Marx was a German Philosopher and he wrote the Communist Manifesto. His ideas were based on scientific socialism and the “haves/ have nots”. His ideas were used in the 1960’s by the German social democrats and in 1917 during the Russian revolution.
Cavour become Prime Minister of Piedmont
Alexander II's Rule
1855 - 1881
Alexander II rule is an example of the cycle of reform and repression in Russia.
Garibaldi takes control of Sicily and Naples
Garibaldi takes control of Sicily and Naples with assistance from Cavour (supplies/weapons) and gives the areas to Emmanuel I.
Emmanuel I is made king of Italy
Emmanuel I is made king of Italy but Italy is not yet entirely unified because the kingdom is missing some areas.
Austro-Prussian War- Italy gains Venetia
Franco-Prussian War-Unified Italy
Italy gains Rome and is now unified
1870 - 1871
The Franco-Prussian War was the war between France and Prussia. Bismarck tricked France into war, because he believed it was the best for Prussia (Realpolitik) and in 1871 Prussia claimed the North German States. Germany was therefore unified and the balance of power shifted to Germany
Unit 4: New Imperialism
1839 - 1842
Between Britain and China over restrictions to India's Opium trade. Ended with the Treat of Nanjing. Britain won.
1850 - 1864
Peasant revolt almost toppled the Qing dynasty. Held parts of China for 14 years.
1884 - 1885
European Leaders meet to discuss the future for African Colonies intending to avoid war. Set new expectations: can not claim a colony without a government office present, free trade, redrew map of africa with no regard to territorial or ethnic tribes, recognized King Leopold's claims in Congo.
Indian National Congress
Nationalist leaders believed in peaceful protests to gain greater democracy. Wanted self-rule, but supported Western-style modernization
1889 - 1902
Great Britain defeated the Boers of South Africa. Boers were Dutch settlers of Cape Town
Open Door Policy
China was forced by imperial powers to trade equally with all countries. China was controlled by foreign power, which sparked the Boxer Rebellion
The Boxers attacked foreigners across China. Upset with Open Door Policy.
Resented Hindu domination of Indian National Congress. Worried about Hindu-run government.
Treaty of Nanjing
1942 - 1943
Britain gained Hong Kong, extraterritoriality, and indemnity. China was forced to open more ports for trade and ultimately lost power
Unit 5: World War I
1882 - 1914
An alliance between Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary.
Germany and Austria-Hungary later became the Central Powers after WWI began
Italy joined the Allies
World War I
1914 - 1918
Forced Nicholas II to give up his spot as tsar
The Duma then set up a provisional government
The Red Guards attacked the Duma’s provisional government
The Bolsheviks seized control
Moscow became the Bolshevik’s capital
Lenin led the Bolsheviks
League of Nations
1919 - 1946
Created by Wilson
The participating countries agreed to negotiate issues instead if going to war
Agreed to creating a common front against an enemy
Was the 1st step toward an international organization dedicated to maintaining peace and advancing the interests of all peoples
Treaty of Versailles
Germany and the Allied Powers
Germany had to take blame for WWI, pay war reparations, and largely shrink its military
Long term effect: German resentment of the Treaty of Versailles would poison the international climate for 20 years. It would help spark WWII
New Economic Policy
Created under Lenin
The government kept its control over banks, foreign trade, and large industries
• Small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit
Peasants were allowed small plots of land and could freely sell their surplus crops
• Soviet Union’s economy recovered
• Standards of living improved
• Food and industry production reached prewar levels
March on Rome- legally handed power
Hitler Comes to Power
Unit 6: Nationalism
Zionism; wanted to build a Jewish state in Palestine.
Fought against anti-semitism
1910 - 1917
Carranza against Porfirio Diaz: inequality
1917, Constitution of 1917, land, religion and labor.
Nationalist Revolution of 1911
Led by Sun Yixian
Ended the imperial rule
established the Republic of China
British: promised to give Jews a national home in Palestine
Coflict promise: allies promised Arabs a home in Palestine
British to Indians
British banned Indian public meeting--opened fire on the crowd in a meeting
convinced Indians to govern themselves
INC changed its goal from self-rule within BritishEmpire to independence
Mohandas K. Gandhi
used religion to unify India
Fought for independence
Used nonviolence against invaders
advocated western democracy
equal rights for everyone
determined to reunite China and defeat the warlords
Interested in neither democracy nor communism
North expedition in 1926--seized Beijing and coorperated with communists
viewed communists as a threat--massacred communists
The Shah of Persia (Iran)
Westernized, modernized and industrialized
improved women's status--participation in public
made British oil industries shared profit woth Iran
the government won more control over Iran's resources
Led by Mohandas K. Gandhi
a peaceful march to collect salt from sea
agaisnt British Salt Monopoly which was a symbol of oppression
Forced British to hand some power to Indians
1934 - 1935
Mao Zedong--communists v.s Jiang Jieshi--Guomindang
Moa: believed the communists should seek supports from poeasants rather than the urban workers
strict disciplines--won supports among peasants
Unit 7: World War II & the Holocaust
By: Kate Layman and Charlotte Mathews
Joseph Stalin Comes to Power
After death of Lenin
Five Year Plans
1928 - 1933
This was Stalin’s Economic Plan
• Wanted to become more industrial
• Improve transportation
• Aimed at building a heavy industry
• Increasing farm outlets
• Put all economic activity under governments control
• Gov owned all businesses
• created a command economy (=gov makes all basic economic decisions)
=Laws passed by Hitler that deprived all German Jews from their German Citizenship
Also deprived them of:
• Marring Non-Jews
• Attending/ Teaching at German Schools
• Holding Government Jobs
• Practicing law or medicine
• first time Jews were thought of as a race
Great Britain and France appeased to Hitler’s demands for Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia and persuaded the Czechs to surrender. Hitler promised that he would expand his territory no further but did not keep his promise in the end.
=Violent physical attacks on Jews across Germany and Germany’s Territories
• Started when a young Jewish boy shot a diplomat in Paris who was mistreating his parents --used as an excuse to attack Jews
• Shops were destroyed and people were assaulted
World War II
1939 - 1945
Start: Hitlers invasion of Poland
End: September 2, 1945 when a peaceful treaty was signed aboard the US battleship Misouri
• = “lightning war”
• Nazi forces stormed Poland
• The German Air Force bombed airfields, factories, towns and cities.
• Germany attacked from the west, Stalin attacked from the east
Nazi Soviet Pact
Bound Hitler and Stalin to peaceful relations, promised not to fight if one went to war.
Hitler declared his “Final Solution” – The idea to exterminate all of Europe’s Jews.
Resulted in ghettos, concentration and death camps.
Close to 6 million killed.
Unit 8: The Cold War
When: February 1945
Who: Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
Purpose: To re-discuss Europe post WWII
Outcome: The big three agreed to go to war with Japan three months of Germany’s surrender. Stalin would get southern Sakhlin island, the Kuril Islands, and occupation zone in Korea. Free elections in Eastern Europe. Germany would be split into four zones.
Note: The big three differed because Stalin wanted to spread communism. Stalin wanted buffer states like Germany to stop capitalist influences. Roosevelt and Churchill wanted self determination.
Doctrine written by President Truman emphasizing that communism should be contained within the USSR
June 24 1948 - May 12 1949
Background: Because Berlin was the capital of Germany, the allies decided to split berlin into East and West Berlin. USSR was in control of East Berlin.
When: June 1948
What: The Soviet Union blockaded roads and railroads into Berlin -- tried to force western allies to abandon their occupied zone.
Led by Mao Zedong against nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi and won.
Appealed to peasant population and tried to purge China of bourgeois tendencies.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization with anti-communist members
Cuban Missile Crisis
November 7 1952 - November 20 1952
USSR put nuclear missiles in Cuba which frightened the U.S. so the US asked for the missiles to be removed.
July 1953 - January 1959
Led by Fidel Castro to overthrow Fulgencio Batista
August 1961 - November 9 1989
Separated East and West Berlin
Unit 9: Nation Building
Jawaharlal Nehru in Office
1947 - 1967
Nehru was the first Prime Mininster of independent India. His priority was to strengthen the Indian economy, for example, he promoted the Green Revolution in the 1960s.
India and Pakistan Become Independent
India and Pakistan win indepedence from Britian after partition.
Apartheid in South Africa
1948 - 1994
Apartheid was a system of legal segregation in South Africa. It seperated people into four groups: white, black, asian, and mixed. Open elections in 1994 brought the end of apartheid in South Africa.
Israel is founded.
Mau Mau Uprisings (begin)
In the 1950s, more radical leaders (than Kenyatta) in Kenya turrned to guerrila wafare against the British. The British called them the Mau Mau. To stop the Mau Mau violence, the British arrested Kenyatta.
1950 - 1969
The Green Revolution increased agricultural production in countries such as India. The Green Revolution was when improved farming methods and products were introduced in many parts of the world. (1950s to 1960s).
Gamal Abdel Nasser Elected President of Egypt
-Determined to modernize and stop western influence
-Arab nationalism makes him popular throughout Arab world
-Took Soviet aid because U.S was helping Israel
-2 unsuccessful wars with Israel
-Built Aswan dam
Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, resulting in a confrontation between Eygpt, Britain, and France. (Also Israel, US, USSR, and United Nations).
The Gold Coast (Ghana) won indpendence under Kwama Nkrumah.
In South Africa, police gunned down 69 anti-apartheid demonstrators. This (and the government crack down on the ANC) led the ANC to moved away from peaceful protest to more violent actions.
Jomo Kenyatta's actions led to the independence of Kenya.
Six Day War
War between Israel and the surrounding Arab states, in which, Israel won and gained the West Bank, Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights.
Anwar Sadat Reopens Suez Canal
Camp David Accords
Peace Treaty between Egypt and Isreal, in which, Egypt gets back the Sinai Peninsula. Anwar Sadat (Egypt) - first Arab leader to make peace with Israel.
Iran Becomes a Theocracy
Ayatollah Khomeini (religious leader) and supporters ousted the Shah after he worked with the US. Khomeini then declared Iran an Islamic Republic and ran Iran as a theocracy.
Deng Xiaoping Reforms China's Economy
Four Modernizations - agriculture, industry, science, defence
Open Door Policy
Working to undo damage done by Mao
Intifada - Palestinian
1987 - 1993
Intifada were the Palestinian uprisings in the West Bank and Gaza Strip against Israeli occupation.
Tiananmen Square Massacre
Thousands of demonstrators (many students) occupied Tiananmen Square in Beijing and called for democracy. After several days the government sent in troops and tanks.
-Between Isreal (Yitzhak Rabin) and Palestinians (Yasser Arafat/PLO)
-Gave Palestinians in t West Bank and Gaza limited self-rule under Palestinian Authority.
-The PLO recognized Isreal's right to exist and pledged to stop terrorist attacks.
Nelson Mandela Elected President
Mandela was the first South African president after the end of apartheid. He worked with deKlerk and others in the government to ease the transition.