Spanish conquerors of Central and South America
Hernan Cortez - one of the earliest conquistadors
-center of the valuable spice trade
-the world leader in textile manufacturing, exporting large quantities of silk and cotton cloth
-larger, richer and more powerful than any kingdom in Europe
-Permitted the Portuguese and later the Dutch, English, and French to build forts and ware houses in Indian coastal towns
1644: Manchu armies seized Beijing and made it their capital
brought Chinese influence into Central Asia
broaden China’s border -> the largest area of land in the nation’s history
Written by Adam Smith, a supporter of mercantilism in France
Smith supported laissez faire, a system of government where business are allowed to operate with little to no government influence
turned France into a constitutional monarchy
a period of radical social upheaval in France that impact the country and all of Europe
growing violence leads to the end of the monarchy and the Reign of Terror
led by Robespierre
was a period in France where people suspected of resisting revolution were arrested and jailed
fear and terror forced compliance
Napoleon quickly rises to power during the turmoil of the revolution
-equality of all citizens
-abolition of feudalism
-no rights for women
meeting of European leaders to establish lasting peace
Ending in 1804 the Haitian Revolution was the first and only successful slave revolt. It also inspired later revolts such as thoose in South America led by Bolivar.
Marx was a German Philosopher and he wrote the Communist Manifesto. His ideas were based on scientific socialism and the “haves/ have nots”. His ideas were used in the 1960’s by the German social democrats and in 1917 during the Russian revolution.
Alexander II rule is an example of the cycle of reform and repression in Russia.
Garibaldi takes control of Sicily and Naples with assistance from Cavour (supplies/weapons) and gives the areas to Emmanuel I.
Emmanuel I is made king of Italy but Italy is not yet entirely unified because the kingdom is missing some areas.
Italy gains Rome and is now unified
The Franco-Prussian War was the war between France and Prussia. Bismarck tricked France into war, because he believed it was the best for Prussia (Realpolitik) and in 1871 Prussia claimed the North German States. Germany was therefore unified and the balance of power shifted to Germany
Between Britain and China over restrictions to India's Opium trade. Ended with the Treat of Nanjing. Britain won.
Peasant revolt almost toppled the Qing dynasty. Held parts of China for 14 years.
European Leaders meet to discuss the future for African Colonies intending to avoid war. Set new expectations: can not claim a colony without a government office present, free trade, redrew map of africa with no regard to territorial or ethnic tribes, recognized King Leopold's claims in Congo.
Nationalist leaders believed in peaceful protests to gain greater democracy. Wanted self-rule, but supported Western-style modernization
Great Britain defeated the Boers of South Africa. Boers were Dutch settlers of Cape Town
China was forced by imperial powers to trade equally with all countries. China was controlled by foreign power, which sparked the Boxer Rebellion
The Boxers attacked foreigners across China. Upset with Open Door Policy.
Resented Hindu domination of Indian National Congress. Worried about Hindu-run government.
Britain gained Hong Kong, extraterritoriality, and indemnity. China was forced to open more ports for trade and ultimately lost power
March on Rome- legally handed power
Zionism; wanted to build a Jewish state in Palestine.
Fought against anti-semitism
Led by Sun Yixian
Ended the imperial rule
established the Republic of China
British: promised to give Jews a national home in Palestine
Coflict promise: allies promised Arabs a home in Palestine
British to Indians
British banned Indian public meeting--opened fire on the crowd in a meeting
convinced Indians to govern themselves
INC changed its goal from self-rule within BritishEmpire to independence
used religion to unify India
Fought for independence
Used nonviolence against invaders
advocated western democracy
equal rights for everyone
determined to reunite China and defeat the warlords
Interested in neither democracy nor communism
North expedition in 1926--seized Beijing and coorperated with communists
viewed communists as a threat--massacred communists
The Shah of Persia (Iran)
Westernized, modernized and industrialized
improved women's status--participation in public
made British oil industries shared profit woth Iran
the government won more control over Iran's resources
Led by Mohandas K. Gandhi
a peaceful march to collect salt from sea
agaisnt British Salt Monopoly which was a symbol of oppression
Forced British to hand some power to Indians
Mao Zedong--communists v.s Jiang Jieshi--Guomindang
Moa: believed the communists should seek supports from poeasants rather than the urban workers
strict disciplines--won supports among peasants
By: Kate Layman and Charlotte Mathews
After death of Lenin
This was Stalin’s Economic Plan
• Wanted to become more industrial
• Improve transportation
• Aimed at building a heavy industry
• Increasing farm outlets
• Put all economic activity under governments control
• Gov owned all businesses
• created a command economy (=gov makes all basic economic decisions)
=Laws passed by Hitler that deprived all German Jews from their German Citizenship
Also deprived them of:
• Marring Non-Jews
• Attending/ Teaching at German Schools
• Holding Government Jobs
• Practicing law or medicine
• first time Jews were thought of as a race
Great Britain and France appeased to Hitler’s demands for Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia and persuaded the Czechs to surrender. Hitler promised that he would expand his territory no further but did not keep his promise in the end.
=Violent physical attacks on Jews across Germany and Germany’s Territories
• Started when a young Jewish boy shot a diplomat in Paris who was mistreating his parents --used as an excuse to attack Jews
• Shops were destroyed and people were assaulted
• = “lightning war”
• Nazi forces stormed Poland
• The German Air Force bombed airfields, factories, towns and cities.
• Germany attacked from the west, Stalin attacked from the east
Start: Hitlers invasion of Poland
End: September 2, 1945 when a peaceful treaty was signed aboard the US battleship Misouri
Bound Hitler and Stalin to peaceful relations, promised not to fight if one went to war.
Hitler declared his “Final Solution” – The idea to exterminate all of Europe’s Jews.
Resulted in ghettos, concentration and death camps.
Close to 6 million killed.
When: February 1945
Who: Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
Purpose: To re-discuss Europe post WWII
Outcome: The big three agreed to go to war with Japan three months of Germany’s surrender. Stalin would get southern Sakhlin island, the Kuril Islands, and occupation zone in Korea. Free elections in Eastern Europe. Germany would be split into four zones.
Note: The big three differed because Stalin wanted to spread communism. Stalin wanted buffer states like Germany to stop capitalist influences. Roosevelt and Churchill wanted self determination.
Doctrine written by President Truman emphasizing that communism should be contained within the USSR
Background: Because Berlin was the capital of Germany, the allies decided to split berlin into East and West Berlin. USSR was in control of East Berlin.
When: June 1948
What: The Soviet Union blockaded roads and railroads into Berlin -- tried to force western allies to abandon their occupied zone.
Led by Mao Zedong against nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi and won.
Appealed to peasant population and tried to purge China of bourgeois tendencies.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization with anti-communist members
USSR put nuclear missiles in Cuba which frightened the U.S. so the US asked for the missiles to be removed.
Led by Fidel Castro to overthrow Fulgencio Batista
Separated East and West Berlin
Nehru was the first Prime Mininster of independent India. His priority was to strengthen the Indian economy, for example, he promoted the Green Revolution in the 1960s.
India and Pakistan win indepedence from Britian after partition.
Apartheid was a system of legal segregation in South Africa. It seperated people into four groups: white, black, asian, and mixed. Open elections in 1994 brought the end of apartheid in South Africa.
In the 1950s, more radical leaders (than Kenyatta) in Kenya turrned to guerrila wafare against the British. The British called them the Mau Mau. To stop the Mau Mau violence, the British arrested Kenyatta.
The Green Revolution increased agricultural production in countries such as India. The Green Revolution was when improved farming methods and products were introduced in many parts of the world. (1950s to 1960s).
-Determined to modernize and stop western influence
-Arab nationalism makes him popular throughout Arab world
-Took Soviet aid because U.S was helping Israel
-2 unsuccessful wars with Israel
-Built Aswan dam
Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, resulting in a confrontation between Eygpt, Britain, and France. (Also Israel, US, USSR, and United Nations).
The Gold Coast (Ghana) won indpendence under Kwama Nkrumah.
In South Africa, police gunned down 69 anti-apartheid demonstrators. This (and the government crack down on the ANC) led the ANC to moved away from peaceful protest to more violent actions.
Jomo Kenyatta's actions led to the independence of Kenya.
War between Israel and the surrounding Arab states, in which, Israel won and gained the West Bank, Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights.
Peace Treaty between Egypt and Isreal, in which, Egypt gets back the Sinai Peninsula. Anwar Sadat (Egypt) - first Arab leader to make peace with Israel.
Ayatollah Khomeini (religious leader) and supporters ousted the Shah after he worked with the US. Khomeini then declared Iran an Islamic Republic and ran Iran as a theocracy.
Four Modernizations - agriculture, industry, science, defence
Open Door Policy
Working to undo damage done by Mao
Intifada were the Palestinian uprisings in the West Bank and Gaza Strip against Israeli occupation.
Thousands of demonstrators (many students) occupied Tiananmen Square in Beijing and called for democracy. After several days the government sent in troops and tanks.
-Between Isreal (Yitzhak Rabin) and Palestinians (Yasser Arafat/PLO)
-Gave Palestinians in t West Bank and Gaza limited self-rule under Palestinian Authority.
-The PLO recognized Isreal's right to exist and pledged to stop terrorist attacks.
Mandela was the first South African president after the end of apartheid. He worked with deKlerk and others in the government to ease the transition.