Military

Study Era

1

1808 - 1912

2

1913 - 1938

3

1939 - 1948

Case

6

1846

FAMINE

Primary Debate: Constitutionality of appropriating funds; not in U.S. national interests and is the responsibility of Great Britain (see Deep Dive #1)

Resolution: No funds appropriated, but Congress directed the USS Jamestown and USS Macedonian to be placed at the public’s disposal (unique in Navy history)

7

1855

FAMINE*

Primary Debate: Constitutionality of using Navy (which is a pro tanto donation); Navy may not have men to spare

Resolution: Passed in Congress (123/24) and referred to Secretary of the Navy. It appears Navy did not provide the requested seamen.

*Note: this request was for 25 Navy seamen to crew a private vessel laden with private donations from New York

10

1870

HUMANITARIAN AID AFTER FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR

Primary Debate: Impartiality – should American vessel transport aid to Germany, or only France?

Resolution: U.S. Navy ship provided for Americans to donate to any country they so desired.

11

1879

Expressing sympathy for Irish in struggle for independence

16

1896

FAMINE

Primary Debate: Strong support for charity, but Great Britain’s inhumane laws as cause of suffering debated (Senate), and inability to find American ship led to quibbles over Navigation Laws (House)

Resolution: US Navy authorized to charter three ships: the Everett sailed from San Fransisco, but the crisis had passed before the Navy was able to charter a ship for the east coast donations

18

1897

17

1897

MILITARY AND HUMANITARIAN SUPPLIES TO INSURGENTS

Primary Debate: Minimal debate over wording – “belligerents” changed to “inhabitants”, etc. First draft offered citizenship and positions in U.S. Army to Cuban belligerents, but that was removed early-on by Committees.

Resolution: S.4518 provided “arms, munitions, and military stores” as well as “medical and quartermaster supplies and other aid” to inhabitants of the island… who are in danger of perishing, and to increase their effective fighting force against Spain.

20

1899

23

1901

22

1901

VOLCANO ERUPTION

Primary Debate: It is not proper for “legislative spasms” to be used as a means for expressing our personal sympathy – this is for private citizens to respond to as they see fit. France is a wealthy nation and has not asked us to interfere.

Result: Up to $200,000 authorized to purchase clothing, medicines, and other necessary articles to be distributed by US Navy, passed in House with vote of 197/9 (Senate y/n not recorded)

27

1906

EARTHQUAKE

Primary Debate: No debate.

Result: US Navy authorized to distribute clothing, medicines and other necessary articles from its existing stores (the well-stocked USS Celtic was in the nearby port of Guantanamo)

28

1908

EARTHQUAKE

Primary Debate: No dissent. Reasons to give: friendship/immense debt, connections through Italian immigrants to America, American has an abundance.

Result: US President authorized: $800,000 to procure and distribute provisions, clothing, medicines and other necessary articles; and to employ any vessels of the US Navy and to charter and employ any other suitable steamship or vessels necessary.

Note: this was the largest natural disaster of the 20th century.

31

1909

allows Red Cross to charter two ships with American flag to transport supplies

32

1910

EE

49

1919

MS

59

1921

AS

60

1921

EE

70

1923

EE

102

1925

EE

90

1930

EE

114

1941

EE

117

1942

LC

130

1946

EE

War

War of 1812

1812 - 1815

Second Barbary War

1815

In the Second Barbary War, an American fleet commanded by Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge defeated the Barbary Pirates (Ottoman Empire's North African regencies).

Mexican-American War

1846 - 1847

U.S. Civil War

1861 - 1865

Spanish-American War

1898

WWI

1914 - 1918

WWII

1939 - 1945